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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • ïdïk holy, sacred. [<CT *ïduk]
  • ïdïktïš holy, sacred.
  • ïgban long dry branch, twiglet, brushwood; cf. ïgbïskan.
  • ïgbïskan cf. ïgban long dry branch, twiglet, brushwood.
  • ïgït- to exert oneself, to strain oneself.
  • ïgla- to cry; ööreende ïglaar, xoradaanda kattïrar to cry when happy, to roar with laughter when angry. [<CT *ïgla-]
  • ïgla-sïkta- to cry vehemently
  • ïglačal whining.
  • ïglačaŋna- to pretend to cry.
  • ïglagan whining; ïglagan urug cry-baby.
  • ïglaganmay cry-baby, sniveller.
  • ïglaganna- to often cry.
  • ïglagar: ïglagar karaktïg easily moved to tears.
  • ïglančïg cry-baby.
  • ïglaš- to cry together. [<CT *ïglaš-]
  • ïglat- to cause to cry, to make cry. [<CT *ïglat-]
  • ïglat-sïktat- to make cry vehemently.
  • ïï-sïï weeping, crying.
  • ïït sound.
  • ïïtkïr resonant, voiced.
  • ïïtta- to utter a sound, to speak.
  • ïlaŋgïya specifically.
  • ïlap exactly, really, truly, actually, indeed, probably; ïlap kïldïr really, actually, justly. [LM lab]
  • ïlavïla- to specify, to define more precisely, to elaborate; ïlavïlap exactly, carefully; attentively. [cf. LM labla-]
  • ïlga- to distinguish. [LM ilγa-]
  • ïlgal difference. [LM ilγa-]
  • ïlgaldïg different.
  • ïlgal- to be distinguished.
  • ïlgattïn- to be chosen, to be selected.
  • ïlgïn quick(ly), fast. [LM ilγum]
  • ïmïraa mosquito, gnat.
  • ïmïra-seek (flying) insects.
  • ïmïy bear.
  • ïna- to agree. [<CT *una-]
  • ïnaa a thin pole (part of the rafter of a yurt); cart; draught (animal).
  • ïnaar to there, thither. [<CT *ïnaru]
  • ïnak beloved; love; ; seŋee ïnak men I love you; čurtuvuska ïnak bis we love our country. [LM inag]
  • ïnakšïl love.
  • ïnan- to hope. [<CT *ïnan-]
  • ïnanïš hope.
  • ïnča so much, this much. [<CT *ïnča]
  • ïnča- to do thus.
  • ïnčaarda then, at that time; ïnčaardagï of that time.
  • ïnčaarga thus, therefore.
  • ïnčalza-daa but, however.
  • ïnčalzažok but, however.
  • ïnčan then, at that time.
  • ïnčangaš therefore, that’s why, thus.
  • ïnčanmïže but, however.
  • ïnčaš- to do 'it' together, to have sex.
  • ïnda thus, such; there. [cf. CT *anda]
  • ïnda-kayda occasionally, sometimes.
  • ïnda-mïnda here and there.
  • ïnda-xaaya seldom, occasionally.
  • ïndï the far side, the other side.
  • ïndïg such a, as that; ïndïg bolza-daa but, however. [cf. CT *andag]
  • ïngaar to that place, thither.
  • ïŋay thither; ïŋay bol- to run thither.
  • ïŋay-beer thither and hither.
  • ïŋgïržak pack saddle. [<CT *ïŋïrčak]
  • ïr song; kundaga ïrï drinking-song. [<CT *ïr]
  • ïr-šoor songs and tunes.
  • ïra- to go away from; to be far from. [<CT *ïra-]
  • ïraažï singer; singing (bird).
  • ïrak far; ïrakta at a far place, far from; ïrakkï čöön čük the Far East. [<CT *ïrak]
  • ïrak-čook far and near.
  • ïrak-uzak far, far away.
  • ïrbïska fragile, frail, weak; cf. ïrbïskïn.
  • ïrbïskïn fragile, frail, weak; ïrbïskïn kiži a frail person; cf. ïrbïska.
  • ïrgak crooked, curved. [<CT *ïrgak]
  • ïrgay fox-thorn, medlar. [LM irγai]
  • ïrï- to disembowel.
  • ïrïktaaš shorts, short trousers.
  • ïrïm presentiment, premonition. [<CT *ïrïm]
  • ïrïmna- to have a presentiment, premonition; to be superstitious, to believe in signs (omens).
  • ïrïmnïg superstitious, believing in signs (omens).
  • ïrïmza weak, puny.
  • ïrla- to sing; ïrlaar-xaaržak gramophone. [<CT *ïrla-]
  • ïrlan- to growl, snarl.
  • ïrlaš- to sing together. [<CT *ïrlaš-]
  • ïrlat- to let sing. [<CT *ïrlat-]
  • ïrma patience, endurance.
  • ïržanak the spring of a game trap.
  • ïržïm quiet(ness), peaceful(ness).
  • ïš smoke, fog. [<CT *ïš]
  • ïš- (ïžar) to swell, to puff out, to blow. [<CT *sï:š-]
  • ïškam stuffy, stifling.
  • ïškaš similar, alike; xovagannar ïškaš like butterflies; ol ïškaš likewise. [<CT *oxšaš]
  • ïškažïgay indeed, you know.
  • ïškï- to puff, to pant.
  • ïškïïšta- to puff, to pant.
  • ïškïn- to fall, to fall off, to fall out, to sink, to lose. [<CT *ïčkïn-]
  • ïšta- to smoke, to emit smoke. [<CT *ïšla-]
  • ïštïg smokey.
  • ït [ïht] dog; ïttan erttir- to deceive (lit. to cause to pass along the dog). [<*ït <CT *ïyt]
  • ït- (ïdar) to send; to run; to tell a story; to guess a riddle. [<CT *ïd-]
  • ïy- to press in. [<CT *ïy-]
  • ïyak exactly, strongly.
  • ïyančïg shameful, ashamed.
  • ïyaš tree; wood; kara ïyaš mountainous coniferous forest. [<CT *ïgač]
  • ïyaščï carpenter. [<CT *ïgaččï]
  • ïyašsïg having the smell of wood (or of the forest).
  • ïyat shame; ïyat čok shameless. [<CT *uyat]
  • ïyat- to be ashamed. [<CT *uyat-]
  • ïyba ashes. [cf. Tofa, Khak]
  • ïybaaŋgï barn-owl.
  • ïygï (of some wild animals, e.g. bears) very fat and strong, beefy; ïygï adïg extremely fat and strong bear; ïygï tarbagan extremely fat and strong marmot.
  • ïyïk dent; small hole. [cf. Tofa]
  • ïyïl- to be pressed in; to be bent.
  • ïyïlčak dented.
  • ïyït- to press; to strain oneself.
  • ïynaan could be, must be, possibly, eventually.
  • ïzïguur origin; cultural heritage. [LM iĵaγur]
  • ïzïguurtan aristocrat. [LM iĵaγurtan]
  • ïzïr- [ïhzïr-] to bite, to hold between the teeth; ït bičii ooldu ïzïrïpkan the dog bit the small child; ïzïrar kïskaš cutting pliers, pincers, tongs. [<CT *ïsïr-]
  • ïzïrïš- to bite together, to bite one another.
  • ïzïrïn- to clench one’s teeth; to grind one’s teeth in anger; to cling to, to clutch at; ooŋ dišteri ïzïrtïna bergen s/he clenched her teeth; bürüler ïyašta aray boorda ïzïrtïnïp turgannar the leaves just managed to cling to the trees; cf. *ïzïrtïn-. [<CT *ïsïrïn-]
  • ïzïrtïn- cf. ïzïrïn- to clench one’s teeth; to cling to.
  • ïžïk leeward. [cf. Khak, Tofa]
  • ïžïk [ïhžïk] swelling, tumour; swollen.