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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • öčü- to state, to give a statement; to say, to declare, to testify. [LM öči-]
  • ödek dung; premises, grounds around the house, place where the livestock is kept; ödek doos-karazï dung beetle. [LM ötög]
  • ödüg passage; strait.
  • ödürek duck. [<CT *hö:rdek]
  • ög yurt, home, family; öö his/her home, family; alažï ög coneshaped tent; kidis ög yurt, felt tent; ïyaš yurt wooden house; kïzïl ög red yurt; ög tik- to set up a yurt; to have or establish a family, household; ög išti family, family member; spouse, husband, wife; öönden ünmes kiži a stay-at-home, person who does not leave his house; ög žok unmarried, single; arï öö beehive; kïmïskayak öö ant-hill; čïlan öö snake’s nest. [<CT *eb]
  • ög-baš family.
  • ög-büle family; akï-duŋma ög-büle fraternal family; nayïraldïg ög-büle friendly family.
  • ögbe ancestor; fore-father; great-grandfather; ögbe dïl proto-language, parent language. [LM ebüge, Kh öbög]
  • ögbeŋ standing out, bristling (of a moustache, whiskers, hair); thick (of a beard).
  • ögbey- to ascend, to go up (of mist, smoke); to be tousled, ruffled, dishevelled (of hair).
  • öge- to rub, to polish, to grate, to comb, to card; to smear, to daub.
  • ögle- to marry off, to give into marriage; to set up a yurt, home.
  • ögle-bašta- to marry off, to give into marriage; to set up a yurt.
  • öglen- to get married, to wed; (of the sun, moon) to be surrounded by a halo.
  • öglen-baštan- to get married, to wed.
  • öglendir- to marry off, to give into marriage.
  • ögleniš- to marry, to get married to.
  • ögleš- to help marry off, give into marriage; to help set up a yurt, home.
  • öglet- to let marry off, to let give into marriage; to let set up a yurt, home.
  • öglettin- (of a yurt, home) to be set up.
  • öglettir- to let marry off, to let give into marriage; to let set up a yurt, home.
  • öglüg having a home, family, household; married; öglüg bol- to get married.
  • ök larynx, throat, gullet; ök-bile adaar ažïk ünner pharyngealised vowels.
  • ökpe lung; ökpe aarïï tuberculosis; čedi ökpe čedelee tur- to be very angry, livid; ökpe öŋ (~ ökpeŋ) crimson. [<CT *öpke]
  • ökpe-baar liver; ökpe-baardan kïlgan made with liver; ökpe baardan kïlgan kolbasa liver sausage.
  • ökpele- to be dissatified, displeased. [<CT *öpkele-]
  • ökpeži discontented, dissatisfied. [<CT *öpkeči]
  • öl humid, moist, wet; humidity, moistness; öl čer humid soil; öl sigen moist hay; ölden kort- to be afraid of humidity. [<CT *ö:l]
  • öl- to die; ölbes not dead, immortal; ölgen deceased. [<CT *öl-]
  • öle grey (a horse colour); grey-haired; boozed up, dead-drunk; öle baš a head turned grey. [Tofa öle]
  • öleŋ sedge (a species of grass). [<CT *öleŋ]
  • ölüg dead, deceased. [<CT *ölüg]
  • ölüg chaff.
  • ölük furs, peltry; fur-bearing.
  • ölüm death; ölüm čok immortal. [<CT *ölüm]
  • ölümdük weak. [<CT *ölümdük]
  • ölümnüg deadly, fatal; ölümnüg xoran deadly poison; ölümnüü mortality. [<CT *ölümlüg]
  • ölür- to kill. [<CT *ölür-]
  • ölürt- to let kill. [<CT *ölürt-]
  • ölürüš- to kill one another. [<CT *ölürüš-]
  • ölürt- to let kill. [<CT *ölürt-]
  • ömeeriš- to defend, to protect. [LM ömügere-]
  • ömeeržikči defender, protector; guardian, tutor, mediator, counsel for the defense. [LM ömügeregči]
  • ömeeržilge defence, protection.
  • ömünee: ömüneezinden on behalf of; čonnuŋ ömüneezinden on behalf of the people.
  • önčü property; socialistig önčü socialist property; önčüzün xuraa- to confiscate property.
  • önčük occasion, cause grounds (for faultfinding).
  • önčülüg having property.
  • önčüten owner, proprietor; biče önčüten small owner.
  • öndür great; öndür ulug stately, majestic.
  • öŋ colour; kïzïl öŋ red colour. [<CT *öŋ]
  • öŋ front, face, façade; right side (of a fabric). [<CT *öŋ]
  • öŋ friend, pal.
  • öŋgür bright, light; öŋgür čeček bright flower; öŋgür kök sigen bright green grass.
  • öŋnüg coloured; öŋnüg karandaštar colour pencils; öŋnüg fil’m colour film; öŋnüg metaldar non-ferous metals; deer öŋnüg aht grey horse. [<CT *öŋlüg]
  • öŋnük friend.
  • öŋnükteš- to be or become friends, to make friends with.
  • öödele- to become better; to become right, to become free; cf. ööndele-.
  • öök (small) button.
  • ööndele- cf. öödele- to become better.
  • öör friendship, friend; group, herd, flock, flock, pack; meeŋ öörüm my friend; kïs öörüm my girl friend; öör mal herd of livestock; öör kastar group of geese; öör börüler pack of wolves; öör arï flight of bees; öör sïldïs constellation. [<NE *ögür]
  • ööredig doctrine, study, teachings. [<CT *ögretig]
  • ööredikči teacher.
  • ööredilge learning, education.
  • öören- to learn, to study; to get used to (+ dative). [<CT *ögren-]
  • ööreniičel able, capable, intelligent.
  • öörenikči student, apprentice, pupil.
  • ööret- to teach. [<CT *ögret-]
  • öörü cf. örü upward.
  • öörü- to be happy, to rejoice; öörüp čettir- to thank; öörüp čettiriiškin gratitude. [<CT *ögri-]
  • öörünčüg pleasant, joyful.
  • öörüškü happiness, joy.
  • öörzek without herd.
  • ööskü- to become worse (disease); to break out and spread (disease, war, fire).
  • öösküt- to spread (rumours); to kindle (fire, emotions); to commit (a revolution).
  • ööš gullet, esophagus, trachea; strait, river-head; kïzïl ööš esophagus; kegžir ööš trachea; ööš et- to hiccup; buga ööžü main canal; cf. ödüg. [<CT *öŋöč]
  • öpeŋne- cf. öpey- to be sparse; to rise.
  • öpey: öpey-öpey hush-hush!; öpey ïrï lullaby.
  • öpey- to be sparse, not dense; to rise, to heave, to grow; saraat öpeyip keldi haystacks rose up.
  • öpeyle- to sing lullabies.
  • öre debt. [LM *öri]
  • öreel classroom; room; aalčïlar öreeli drawing room, lounge. [LM öregüü]
  • örege felt covering of the smoke outlet of a yurt.
  • örelig indebted.
  • öreme cream. [LM örüme]
  • örge burunduk, suslyk, gopher, ground squirrel; örge üŋgürü hole of a gopher. [Khakas örge, örke]
  • örgee rich yurt; tent; residence (e.g. of a khan). [LM örgüge(n)]
  • örgen stake, picket, pile. [<NE *örgen]
  • örgen-mïyïs male yearling maral deer.
  • örgü- to offer, to present. [LM örgö-]
  • örgül gift, present. [LM ergül]
  • örgün: örgün čon the masses.
  • örgüüdel application. [LM ergüdel]
  • öršee- to have mercy, to pardon; öršee! mercy!; öršeep körüŋer for goodness’ sake!; excuse me, I beg your pardon. [LM örüsiye-]
  • öršeel mercy, pardon, amnesty; öršeel čok merciless; öršeel dile- to ask for mercy; öršeel körgüs- to pardon to forgive, to show mercy. [LM örüsiyel]
  • ört [öhrt] a fire, burning (of grassland, woods); ört sal- to set fire to. [<CT *ört]
  • örteel yam station, horse relay station; stop between yam stations. [cf. LM örtege(n)]
  • örtek price, value, cost. [LM örteg]
  • örtemčey world, cosmos, universe.
  • örteŋ burned, scorched, charred; örteŋ xovu scorched steppe.
  • örttet- to set a fire, to ignite; boktu örttet- to burn garbage. [<CT *örtet-]
  • örü (~ örüü) upper side, up, upwards, above; örü kaht upper floor; üšten örü more than three. [<CT *ö:rü]
  • örü- to plait, to braid (hair). [<CT *ö:r-]
  • örü- to set up, to compose (text). [LM örü-]
  • örü- to cut, to slit (the skin so as to remove it).
  • örükčü compositor, type-setter. [LM örügči]
  • örüle- to stand up, to rise; xün örüledi the sun rose. [<CT *ö:rüle-]
  • örülge composition, type-setting.
  • örüm drill, auger, borer. [LM örüm]
  • örümne- to drill, to bore.
  • örüten from above; from the north; örüten kelgen kiži a person having come from the north.
  • örüürten from above; from the north.
  • ös aorta; özü kara perfidious. [<CT *ö:z]
  • ös- (özer) to grow. [LM ös-]
  • öske another; ol öske xerek-tir that is another matter; öske talazïndan from the other side; oon öške besides that; öske-daa and others. [<CT *özge]
  • öske- [öhske-] to go upstream. [LM ögsö-]
  • öskeer otherwise, differently; wrongly.
  • öskele- to consider as alien, strange; to treat as alien, stranger, to treat unfriendly; of children to fear a stranger.
  • öskeril- to change, to undergo a change, to alter; (of words) to be conjugated, declined.
  • öskerilge change.
  • öskerliiškin change.
  • öskerlikči traitor.
  • öskert- to change, to alter; to conjugate, to decline (words).
  • ösküs orphan. [<CT *ögsüz]
  • öš revenge, vengeance, spite; öš-bile with a bad intention, on purpose. [<CT *ö:č]
  • öš- (öžer) to go out, to extinguish. [<CT *öč-]
  • öškü goat; policeman, cop, copper. [<CT *ečkü]
  • öštüg carrying a bad intention to, being thirsty for; having a liking or weakness for, being partial to; ehtke östüg kiži a person who likes meat; uygaa öštüg kiži a person who likes to sleep. [cf. Khakas]
  • öt gall bladder; bile. [<CT *ö:t]
  • öt- to get wet.
  • öt- to suffer from diarrhoea.
  • öt- [öht-] to penetrate. [<CT *öt-]
  • ötkek diarrhoea. [<CT *ötkek]
  • ötkekte- to suffer from diarrhoea.
  • ötkür sharp; piercing; shrewd; loud; ötkür sogun sharp arrow; ötkür ün piercing voice.
  • ötküt sharp; piercing; shrewd; loud; ötküt ugaan shrewd mind; ötküt ün piercing voice; ötküt ïr loud song.
  • öttün- to imitate; kiži öttünüp sïgïr- to imitate the whistling of man.
  • öttünček imitating.
  • öttünüüškün imitation.
  • öttür through, over, all through.
  • öttür- to make wet, moist; but öttür- to get one’s feet wet; erinni öttür- to moisten the lips.
  • öveenči ledum, labrador tea (a shrub).
  • övür southern side; the southern part of Tuva; övür čarïk southern slope. [LM öbür]
  • övürle- to go south, to go to the south of Tuva.
  • öy moment, time, season; taraa kezer öy the time to cut the grain, harvest time; ol öyde at that time. [cf. CT *öy]
  • öy: -A/IrIngA öy to do only, merely, just, nothing but; ol oynaarïnga öy s/he does nothing but playing; sen uduurunga öy-dür you do nothing but sleeping, you are a sleepy-head; ol čemneniringe öy s/he does nothing but eating, s/he is a glutton.
  • öy just right, fitting, of the right size, measure; bo idikter meŋee öy these boots are of the right size for me, these boots fit me.
  • öy- to roll; to rub; kidis oy- to prepare felt; kidis idik oy- to prepare felt boots.
  • öyek abdomen, belly (of animals); ); the skin underneath the belly and throat; forestock of a rifle.
  • öyle- to limit, to restrict, to measure out, to ration; ažïl šagïn öyle- to standardise the working time.
  • öylüg having a limit; utmost.
  • öyünde just right, moderate; öyünde temperatura moderate temperature; bo meŋee öyünde ton-dur this is a dress that fits me just right.
  • özek core, center; axle; wick; ïyaš özee the core of a tree; kadaganïŋ özee the core of a boil; tergeniŋ özee a cart’s axle; černiŋ özee axis of the equator; kerosin lampazïnïŋ özee the wick of a kerosine lamp. [<CT *özek]
  • özen narrow gully. [<CT *özen]
  • özülde growth. [LM ösülte]
  • özüm shoots, young growth; baštaygï özümner early shoots.
  • öže- to spite. [<CT *ö:če-, or cf. LM ösi-]
  • öžeen revenge, vengeance, hate, hatred; öžeen alïkčïzï avenger. [LM ösiye]
  • öžeennig being against, fiendish, antagonist.
  • öžeeten (~ öžeeti) hardened enemy, inveterate enemy. [LM ösiyeten]
  • öžegeer on purpose.
  • öžeš stubborn, obstinate; stubbornness; öžeš kiži stubborn person. [<CT *ö:češ]
  • öžeš- to be obstinate. [<CT *ö:češ-]
  • öžün forearm. [<CT *öšün]
  • öžür- to extinguish. [<CT *öčür-]