A

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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • a but, and; a ol ïškaš and likewise; men čoruptayn, a sen artïp kag let me go, but you must stay; bo dalay eves, a xöl-dür this is not a sea but a lake; kïš düšken, a xar am-daa čagbaan winter has set in but it has not snowed yet; bo tool eves, a xerek kïrïnda bolgan čüve-dir this is not a story but something that happened in fact; a čül dize namely, that is; a čül ïnčaš? what exactly? [←Rus a]
  • aa ah!; aa, bo siler ïškažïŋar čül! ah, it is you!; aa, siler čanïp kelgen ïškaš čül siler! ah, so you have returned apparently!; aa, čüü didir sen? ah, what are you saying?
  • aa (emphatic particle); bo čüveniŋ čiktiin aa! this is an ashtonishing thing!; ekizin aa! how good! čüge ïïttavayn-dïr sen aa? why is it you are keeping mum?
  • aa biestings, colostrum; inek aazï cow biestings.
  • aadam (~ aadama) fiery (of horses).
  • aadamna- of horses to be obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery; to gambol, to frisk.
  • aadaŋ piece of leather or textile for wrapping tea or tobacco.
  • aadaŋna- to wrap in a wrapping for tea or tobacco.
  • aadïg rocking, swinging; rocking chair.
  • aadïïškïn rocking, swinging.
  • aagayla- to persuade, to talk into.
  • aagaylat- to let persuade, to let talk into.
  • aak strength of taste, strong taste; šaynïŋ aagï the strong taste of tea; xandïnïŋ aagï the strong taste of nastoyka liqueur. [←Kh aag, LM aγa]
  • aak whim, caprice.
  • aak consequence, after-effects; sook aagï (~ sooktuŋ aagï) the after-effects of cold; bögün sook-tur, xar aagïndan ïnčap tur boor it is cold today, evidently as a consequence of the snow.
  • aak rebuke, reproach.
  • aak- (of a sick child) to be whimsical, to complain.
  • aak-baak (~ aak-maak): aak-maak četpe very quick, in a moment; aak-baak-daa četpes quickly, in a flash.
  • aaksïg of strong taste, tasty; aaksïg šay strong tea.
  • aaksït- to make strong (tea); šaynï aaksïdïr xayïndïr- to brew strong tea.
  • aakta- to reproach. [LM ayaγla-]
  • aaktal- (of a sick child) to complain.
  • aaktïg fickle, capricious (of a sick child).
  • aal settlement, encampment, village, house; aal kodanï village grounds; olar aalïnda they are at home; aal malï domestic animals; aal išti inhabitant of a house, village; member of the family; ulug aal prison, jail. [<CT *a:gïl, cf. LM ail]
  • aal (term of address) boy, chap; friend, comrade; kandïg (~ kančaar) čurttap tur sen, aal? how is life, chap?
  • aal-oran place of residence, home; aal-oran čok homeless.
  • aala- to cry (of a child), to shout, to howl (of animals).
  • aalčï guest; xündülüg aalčï honoured guest; aalčïlar bažïŋï guest house, hotel. [LM ailči(n)]
  • aalda- to visit; ködeede törelderimge aaldap čoraan men I visited my relatives in town; adïg aalda- to hunt bears (lit. to visit the bear).
  • aaldaš- to visit one another.
  • aaldat- to let visit, to invite.
  • aamay stupid, confused; scatter-brain; day-dreamer. [Tofa aamay]
  • aamaylan- to loiter, to linger.
  • aan later; aan kelir men I will come later on. [Tofa aan]
  • aan (emphatic particle) kïmïl ol? oglum aan who is that? this now is my son; bo nomnu aan, nomčudun be? as for this book, have you read it? [Tofa aan]
  • aanakayïn (~ aanaytan ~ aanaytkan) unexpectedly; moreover; again; aanaytan, xar baza čaapkan it snowed inopportunely.
  • aaŋayïn- to sob, to howl, to bawl.
  • aap-saap several, small, petty; aap-saap ažïldar odd jobs; aap-saap čüve small things.
  • aar heavy; difficult, severe; expensive; weight, burdon; aar čühk heavy load; aar aarïg severe illness; aar ažïl heavy work, hard labour; šoodaynïŋ aarï the weight of the bag. [<CT *agïr]
  • aar oh!; seni aar! oh, you!
  • aar takes, taking; cf. al- to take. [< *alïr]
  • aar (of a mountain slope) northern, where the sun does not shine; aar iy northern slope of a mountain where the sun does not shine; Möŋgün Tayganïŋ aar iyi the northern slope of Mount Möŋgün.
  • aar-berge severe, heavy; aar-berge amïdïral harsh life; aar-berge oruk heavy journey.
  • aar-saar several, small, routine; bažïŋnïŋ aar-saar septelgezi routine repairs on the house; aar-saar xerekter small affairs.
  • aarak rather; sïmïranï aarak rather whisperingly; xülümzürüy aarak smiling a bit.
  • aaray well; küžür erni aaray well, what a man!
  • aarï- to become ill, to suffer from a disease, to be hurting; to be fan of; malyariyadan aarï- to suffer from malaria; ool aarïp tur his/her son is ill; bažïm aarïp tur I have a headache; kayï komanda deeš aarïïr siler? what team are you fan of?; ehdi aarï- of labour pains to set in; sagïš aarï- to suffer from a mental illness. [<CT *agrï-]
  • aarï-aržï- to be ill.
  • aarïg illness, disease, pain; ill, sick; baš aarïï headache; diš aarïï tooth ache; sagïš aarïï mental illness; aar aarïg severe disease; xooču aarïg chronic disease; xaldavïrlïg aarïg infectious disease; aarïg kiži ill person, patient; tenek aarïg lunatic; aarïglarnï baš udur boldurbas dugayïnda ažïl profilactic work. [<CT *agïrïg]
  • aarïgan ailing, sickly.
  • aarïganna- to be sickly, to be often ill.
  • aarïg-aržïk diseases, ilnesses.
  • aarïg-aržïktïg suffering from diseases, ilnesses.
  • aarïg-čovulaŋ pangs, (serious) disease.
  • aarïgla- (of plants) to be diseased; bo ünüš aarïglay bergen this plant is diseased.
  • aarïglïg ill, sick; painful, sore; aarïglïg urug sick child; aarïglïg aytïrïg painful subject. [<CT *agïrïglïg]
  • aarïgzï- to be ill, unwell, indisposed.
  • aarïgzïn- to feel not healthy, ill; men aarïgzïnïp tur men I am not feeling well.
  • aarïïčal sickly.
  • aarïkčï fan, supporter.
  • aarïkšï pain, illness.
  • aarïkšïlïg painful, hurting.
  • aarïksa- to ache a little, on and off, now and then; baš aarïksap tur I am having a bit of a headache.
  • aarïšïnčak squeamish.
  • aaršïlïg painful, hurting; arïnïŋ šagarï aaršïlïg a bee sting is painful; meŋee aaršïlïg-dïr I feel pain, it hurts me.
  • aart- to make ill.
  • aarta- to weigh, to be heavy; čahstan ton aartay bergen the garment became heavy from the rain; bažïm aartay bergen my head became heavy; adaa aarta- to become pregnant.
  • aarta- to sip; šay aarta- to sip from the tea.
  • aartat- to make heavy.
  • aartïk burden, obstacle.
  • aartïkta- to consider as a burden, obstacle.
  • aarzïn- to feel the weight of; to feel ill, to be failing.
  • aarzïnčak squeamish.
  • aarzïndïr- to cause harm, to hurt.
  • aaržï cheese curd, strained sediment of sour milk; kurgag aaržï dried curds; öl aaržï moist curds. [←Kh aarc, LM aγarča(n)]
  • aaržï-čökpek diary products.
  • aaržï-xoytpak food products prepared from sour milk.
  • aaržïla- to prepare cheese curds.
  • aaržïlïg containing cheese curds.
  • aas mouth; mouth of a river; opening; aksï his/her/its mouth; aas išti oral cavity; adïg aksï bear’s mouth, jaws; xem aksï estuary; boo aksï muzzle of a gun; ottug dag aksï crater of a vulcano; aas čugaa spoken language; ulustuŋ aas čogaalï folklore, folk arts; aas-bile oral, by mouth; aas ayïïlï wicked or spiteful tongue; bak aas gossip. [<CT *agïz]
  • aas lid; xönek aksï the lid of a teapot.
  • aas-dïl argument, quarrel, scandal; aas-dïl kïl- to argue, to quarrel.
  • aas-dïldïg quarrelsome.
  • aas-kežik good fate, luck, happiness.
  • aas-kežiktig lucky.
  • aaspïrak rude, sharp-tongued.
  • aastïg quarrelsome.
  • aat- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway; čaš urugnu aat- to rock the baby.
  • aatkïïš hook on which to suspend the cradle; swings; seesaws.
  • aatkïïšta- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway.
  • aattïn- to swing; aatkïïška aattïn- to swing on the swings.
  • aattïnčak hanging, pendant; aattïnčak kavay hanging cradle.
  • aattïnïš- to swing together.
  • aay order; direction; way, manner; essence, main point, gist, sense, purport; state, condition, situation; kandïg-daa aay čok without any order, disorderly, chaotic; xattïŋ aayï direction of the wind; šimčeeškinniŋ aayï direction of a movement; čugaanïŋ aayï the character of the conversation; xerektiŋ aayï kandïgïl? how is the state of affairs?; čüveniŋ aayï the gist of the thing; aytïrïgnïŋ aayï the purport of the question; aay bar it makes sense; aayïn tïp- to comprehend, to grasp, to gain an understanding of; to find a solution, way out; aayï tïvïlbas incredible, incomprehensible; ažïldïŋ aayïn tïvar xerek it is necessary to understand the state of affairs; aayï-bile in the manner of; oruk aayï-bile in passing, incidentally; ağïm aayï-bile with the stream, current; klasstar aayï-bile by class; öŋ aayï-bile by colour; deŋzi aayï-bile by weight; alfavit aayï-bile in alphabetical order; ažïl aayï-bile by work; ööreen aayï-bile with pleasure; xoradaan aayï-bile out of spite; čugaalaan aayï-bile as a manner of speaking, in one’s opinion; maŋnaan aayï-bile with a running jump; öžešken aayï-bile out of stubbornness; aay xol right hand; aay salgïn favourable wind, fair wind; ahttïŋ aay čarïï the side on which one usually mounts the horse; aay oktalga positive charge; aayïnga kir- ~ aayïn ertpe- to agree, to reach an agreement; kiži aayïnga kirbe- to be not easy to manage; kiži aayïndan ertpe- to be obedient, dutiful. [Tofa aay]
  • aay-baš state, situation; order; čünüŋ aay-bažïn tïppas s/he does not understand the state of it; aay-baš čok in disorder; aay-baš čok šimčeeškin movement without order; aay-baš čok čoruk mess, jumble; nomnar aay-baš čok čïtkïlaan the books were lying about scattered; aay-bažï tïvïlbas chaotic.
  • aay-dedir back and forth.
  • aayla- to put in order; to arrange, to settle; to remove, to dispose of; bažïŋ ištin aayla- to tidy up the house.
  • aaylaaškïn the act of putting into order, settling, arrangement.
  • aaylan- to gather, to prepare (for the road); to come to, to regain consciousness; to put an end to one’s life, to commit suicide.
  • aaylandïr- to put in order, to arrange.
  • aaylandïrïïškin the act of putting into order, settling, arangement; direction.
  • aaylaš- to put in order together, to arange together; to be lucky, successful; aaylažïp ber- to help arrange; aŋnaarïmga meŋee aylažïp tur I was lucky at my hunting.
  • aaylaškak lucky, succesful; aaylaškak kiži lucky person.
  • aaylaštïr- to let put in order together.
  • aaylattïn- to prepare (for the road); to come to.
  • aaylïg orderly; feasible; čüve aaylïg boor the thing must be orderly; aaylïg ažïl feasable work; aaylïg xerek feasable matter; kandïg aaylïg? what, what kind of?; kandïg aaylïg ažïlïl? what kind of the work? kandïg aaylïg kižil? what kind of the person?
  • aaylïg very; senden aaylïg diledim be I vehemently beg of you.
  • aaza- to promise; bir-tee aazaan soonda küüse-dir once promised one must keep one’s word.
  • aazaaškïn promise; kurug aazaaškïn empty promise; bïžïg aazaaškïnnï ber- to give a solemn promise; aazaaškïnïn sal- to keep one’s promise.
  • aazakčï one who made a promise.
  • aazaš- to promise one another.
  • aazat- to open one’s mouth; aazadïpkan dïŋnap olur- to listen with one’s mouth open.
  • aazatpay (~ aazatpayak) scatter-brain; day-dreamer; slovenly individual; aazatpay čoruk heedlessness.
  • aazatpaylan- to be a scatter-brain, day-dreamer, slovenly individual.
  • aazattïr- to let open one’s mouth.
  • aažï manner, character. [LM aγasi]
  • aažï-čaŋ character, disposition, temper; kadïg aažï-čaŋ stern behaviour; čazïk-čaagay aažï-čaŋ open, good character; aažï-čaŋï eki (bak) kiži a person of good (bad) character; eeldek aažï-čaŋga öören- to learn civility, politeness. [LM aγasi-ĵaŋ]
  • aažï-čaŋnïg of a certain disposition; eldep aažï-čaŋnïg kiži person of queer character.
  • aažïla- to behave; eki (bak) aažïla- to behave kind (unkind), to treat well (bad); kara turazïnda aažïla- to behave wilfully. [LM aγasila-]
  • aažïlaaškïn act, deed; eki aažïlaaškïn good deed; ak setkildig aažïlaaškïn honest deed.
  • aažïlal act, deed.
  • aažïlan- to behave oneself; eki ažïlan- to behave oneself well.
  • aažïlat- to let or make behave.
  • aažïlïg of a certain disposition.
  • aažok very, greatly, terrible, awful, extraordinary; šölde ulus aažok xöy there are a great many people on the grounds; kolxoztarnïŋ malï aažok ösken the livestock of the kolxoz's have grown a great deal; avam aažok ööreen mother was very happy; aažok ulug very big, huge, gigantic, enormous; ačam aažok ulug adïg dayalap kaan my father killed an enormous bear.
  • ača father.
  • ačay daddy.
  • ačazïn- to regard as a father.
  • ačï [ahčï] grace, favour, good deed; ačïzï-bile thanks to, in consequence of. [LM ači]
  • ačïlïğ beneficial.
  • ačïmak [ahčïmak] quiver. [LM ačimaγ]
  • ada [ahda] father; soŋgu ada stepfather. [<CT *ata]
  • ada- to be called, to be named; to dictate (a text); to tell, to speak, to pronounce; meni Kara-kïs dep adaar they call me Kara-kïs; tekstini ada- to dictate the text; šïn ada- to speak the truth; toda ada- to speak clearly, to pronounce clearly. [<CT *a:ta-]
  • ada-čurt fatherland, motherland, homeland.
  • ada-čurttaš compatriot.
  • ada-iye parents.
  • ada-ögbe ancestors.
  • ada-töögü the old days, the old times; ada-töögü dužunda in the old days, formerly.
  • adaan [ahdaan] hate; revenge. [LM ataγa(n)]
  • adaan-öžeennig contest, competition (e.g. in shooting).
  • adaandagï below, underneath, following; adaandagï čižekter the examples below.
  • adaannïg hostile; exitable, reckless; adaannïg dayzïn sworn enemy; adaannïg oyun reckless game; adaannïg demisel competition.
  • adaarga- to envy. [LM antaγarqa-]
  • adaargak envious; jealous. [LM ataγarqaγ]
  • adaargal [ahdaargal] envy, jealousy. [LM ataγarqal]
  • adaargančïg enviable.
  • adagaš pole; telegraf adagaštarï telegraph poles.
  • adak underside, the part below; ežik adaa the underside of the door; xem adaa the lower reaches of a river; adaanga to the underside, below, underneath; adaanda at the underside, underneath; adaandan from underneath, from below; stol adaanda underneath the table; ahttar ïyaš adaanda turgan the horses were standing under the tree; adaktïŋ soonda eventually, finally, at last. [LM adaγ]
  • adakkï under, nether, being underneath; felt to cover the walls of the yurt; adakkï kaht ground floor.
  • adalïškïlar (~ adaškïlar) father and child(ren).
  • adan [ahdan] camel of burden (castrated). [LM ata(n)]
  • adaska skin on which to sleep; a good-for-nothing. [LM adasqa]
  • adaš playful address of girls towards youths.
  • adattïn- to be called.
  • adïg bear; ak adïg polar bear. [<CT *adïg]
  • adïg [ahdïg] shot, throw.
  • adïg-kiriži ivy.
  • adïgžï bowman, shooter, marksman, hunter.
  • adïguuzun animal, beast. [LM adaγusun]
  • adïïrga- to be conceited, presumptuous.
  • adïïrgak conceited, presumptuous, affected, pompous, vain.
  • adïïškïn shot, stroke, blow; xün adïïškïnï sunstroke.
  • adïm bowshot (as a unit of length).
  • adïr branch, fork, subdivision; oruk adïrï fork in the road.
  • adïr [ahdïr] wait a moment! coming! stop!
  • adïr- to separate, to release, let go; to unhook, to take off. [<CT *adïr-]
  • adïr-kuduruk wood-louse.
  • adïram cf. adïr wait!
  • adïrïk tributary; delta; fork of a river. [<CT *adruk]
  • adïrïkta- to make smaller, to get small-change.
  • adïrlïg branched, having many branches, tributaries, subdivisions; xöy adïrlïg ažïl-agïy economy with many branches.
  • adïš palm of the hand; handful. [<CT *aduč]
  • adïš [ahdïš] the shooting, a shot.
  • adïšta- to take a handful.
  • agaar air; weather; money. [←Kh agaar, LM agar]
  • agaarla- to go for a walk.
  • aganak [ahganak] white grouse.
  • agar [ahgar] wool of the second (autumnal) shearing of a sheep. [←Kh axar, LM aqur]
  • agar- to become white, to turn grey, to grow pale; to be innocent; bažï agara bergen his/her head has turned grey. [<CT *a:kar-]
  • agarla- to shear in autumn; xoy agarla- to shear sheep in autumn. [LM aqurla-]
  • agart- to make white. [<CT *a:kart-]
  • agban cf. ïgban dead branch.
  • agï species of wormwood (Artemesia, Compositae). [LM agi]
  • agïïčal flowing, streaming.
  • agïïnak cf. aganak white grouse.
  • agïïškïn the act of streaming, flowing.
  • agïm a current, a stream, a flow. [<CT *akïm]
  • agïr- to accompany a shaman, imitating his calling out loud.
  • agïs- (aksïr) to strain, to filter, to let flow, to turn on (the water).
  • agla- to hunt game using a battue, ambush.
  • ak white; ak xar white snow; ak xleb white bread; ak xep linen, washing; ak pös white fabric, white linen; ak dün ‘midnight sun’; ak baštïg ašak white-haired old man; ak aht white horse; ak čem food from milk, dairy dish; ak xendir flax; ak setkil honesty, integrity, uprightness, sincerity, candour; ak setkildig honest, upright, sincere; karak agï the white of the eye; ak xol person shirking rough work [Rus beloručka]. [<CT *a:k]
  • ak- [ahk-] (agar) to stream, to flow; xem daglar arazï-bile agïp čïdar the river flows amidst the mountains; balïgdan xan agïp čïtkan blood flowed from the wound; agar san account current. [<CT *ak-]
  • ak-balïk dace (Cyprinus Leuciscus); salmon species.
  • ak-bïdaa rice.
  • ak-demir aluminium.
  • ak-eeren shamanic idol.
  • ak-kïr grey roan (horse coat).
  • ak-kïzïl pale red, pink.
  • ak-kodan white hare.
  • ak-kožaalïk male gopher, male ground squirrel.
  • ak-kök grey, light blue.
  • ak-kuskun seagull.
  • ak-taraa wheat.
  • akï (~ akkï) [ahkkï] elder brother; (form of address towards older men) uncle. [LM aγa]
  • akï-duŋma brothers and sisters, siblings; brotherly; akï-duŋma ulustar brotherly peoples; akï-duŋma boluru brotherhood.
  • akï-duŋmalažïïškïn fraternization.
  • akï-duŋmalïškï (~ akï-duŋmaškï) brotherly; akï-duŋmaškï čoruk brotherhood, fraternity; ulustarnïŋ akï-duŋmaškï čoruu the brotherhood of nations.
  • akïlïškï(lar) (~ akïškï(lar)) brothers, brothers and sisters, siblings.
  • akïy (form of address) elder brother, uncle.
  • akïzïn- to regard as a brother.
  • akkïr very white, snowwhite.
  • akkïrar- to become very white, to turn white.
  • akkïrart- to make very white, to turn white.
  • aksïmaar whitish.
  • akša (~ aška) [ahkša] money; akša xavï wallet.
  • akša-möŋgün money.
  • akša-tögerik money.
  • akša-xöreŋgi cash, capital.
  • akšala- to earn money.
  • akšalan- to acquire or gain money.
  • akšalandïr- to finance, to allocate money for.
  • akšalandïrïïškïn financing, grant.
  • akšalïg having money, rich; paid; akšïlïg ažïl paid work.
  • akšï- [ahkšï-] to grow old (of people).
  • akta gelding; castration. [LM aγta]
  • aktala- to castrate. [LM aγtala-]
  • aktïg innocent; aktïg töl innocent children.
  • al- (alïr) to take, to obtain, to receive, to get, to buy; -A/-I/-y al- (potential auxiliary); -(I)p al- (auxiliary ’doing for oneself’); ap (< *alïp) taking; aar (< *alïr) takes, taking; silerniŋ čagaaŋarnï algan men I received your letter; xemčeg al- to take measures, to make arrangements; bodap al- to think; sadïp al- to buy; nomčup al- to read, to spend time reading; olurup al- to sit down. [<CT *al-]
  • ala multicoloured, variegated, motley, piebald, skewbald; ala aht dappled horse; ala aržïïl multicoloured kerchief. [<CT *a:la]
  • ala-čaygaar in a haphazard or unorganised manner, spontaneously, involentarily, unintentionally.
  • ala-čaygaarla- to let take its course, to leave things to themselves.
  • ala-čaygaarlaaškïn drift, flow.
  • ala-šokar spotted, motley, variegated.
  • alaak forest glade (at river crossings and on islands).
  • alaakta- to go past a forest glade (at river crossings and islands).
  • alabuga perch, bass (a species of fish). [<CT *a:labuga]
  • alaga hammer. [←Kh alxa(n), LM aluqa(n)]
  • alaktaagï jumping hare, jerboa. [←Kh alagdaaga, LM alaγdaγa]
  • alandï thawed patch.
  • alaŋgïïš hellebore (Helleborus niger).
  • alaraŋayïn- (~ alaraŋna-) to flash (of the eyes).
  • alažï tent; tent pole; alažï ög tent made of bark.
  • albaara- to lose consciousness, to doze off, to forget oneself, to rave. [LM almaira-]
  • albada- to force, to coerce. [LM albada-]
  • albadat- to let force, coerce.
  • alban duty; service; taxes. [LM alba(n)]
  • alban-dužaal [alban-duhžaal] office, duty. [LM alba(n) tusiyal]
  • alban-xaakčï(t) employee, office worker, civil servant. [LM alban qaγaγči]
  • albatï subjects, people. [LM albatu]
  • albïk- to choke, to suffocate, to pant, to gasp (from lack of air, or fever).
  • albïktïr- to smother, to stifle, to strangle, to throttle.
  • albïn evil spirit, demon. [LM albin]
  • albïs evil spirit, devil, witch. [LM almas]
  • albïs-šulbus evil spirits.
  • albïsta- to lose one’s mind; to rave (like one possessed).
  • albïstïg possessed, obsessed; foolish, frolicsome, playful.
  • alda- to be mistaken, to err. [LM alda-]
  • aldag error, mistake; aldag kïl- to make a mistake. [cf. LM aldaγa]
  • aldagda- to be mistaken, to err. [LM aldaγda-]
  • aldagdal mistake, error, blunder. [LM aldaγdal]
  • aldalaa(n) six together; aldalaa čorupkan the six of them went.
  • aldaldïrzï six together.
  • aldan sixty; aldangï sixtieth. [<NE * altï + *on]
  • aldar fame, good reputation, glory. [LM aldar]
  • aldar-xündü respect, esteem, honour. [LM aldar-kündü]
  • aldara- to be unfit, disabled, put out of action; to be bewildered, confused. [LM aldara-]
  • aldarat- to make unfit, to disable, to put out of action; to bewilder, to confuse.
  • aldarlïg famous; respublikanïŋ aldarlïg artizi famous artist of the republic.
  • aldaržï- to become famous; aldaržaan maadïr famous hero. [LM aldarsi-]
  • aldaržït- to make famous.
  • Alday the Altay mountains.
  • aldï sable (animal); lynx. [<NE *aldï]
  • aldï [ahldï] six; aldïgï sixth. [<CT *altï]
  • aldï [ahldï] underside; aldïnga to the underside, underneath; aldïnda under; aldïndan from underneath. [<CT *alt]
  • aldï-kiš sable.
  • aldïï (~ aldïkï) underneath, nether, under; aldïï kaht ground floor.
  • aldïïrtan downwards; aldïïrtan örü kör- to look up and down.
  • aldïla- to hunt for sable.
  • aldïla- [ahldïla-] to complete six years; to go by six; to take by six.
  • aldïn [ahldïn] gold. [<CT *altun]
  • aldïn [ahldïn] lower part. [<CT *altïn]
  • aldïn- to be taken; ündezini kïldïr aldïn- to be taken as the base or principle of.
  • aldïn-doos (~ aldïn-togus) peacock.
  • aldïn-möŋgün gold and silver, treasures.
  • aldïnnalčak golden.
  • aldïr- to yield, to give in to, to give way, to let oneself be caught. [<CT *aldur-]
  • aldïrt- to yield, to give in to, to give way, to let oneself be caught.
  • ale isn’t it, really?
  • alga- [ahlga-] to bless, to give one’s blessing; to praise. [<CT *alka-]
  • algan- [ahlgan-] (of a shaman) to call out invocations, to shamanise, to exorcise.
  • algï cry, yell, scream, shout, shouting; algï ündür- to utter a cry.
  • algï [ahlgï] skin, leather, pelt.
  • algï- [ahlgï-] to widen, to be or become wider, broader, to expand (in capacity, size).
  • algï-kïškï crying, yelling, shouting.
  • algïg wide, broad, large (of clothes, shoes). [<CT *alkïg]
  • algïr- to shout, to call; to bellow, to howl, to wail; to buzz, to hoot; to croak.
  • algïrïš- to shout or yell together.
  • algïrt- to make shout, wail, hoot.
  • algïš [ahlkïs] blessing, benediction; farewell speech; incantation or spell by a shaman. [<CT *alkïš]
  • algïš [ahlgïš] quarrel, squabble.
  • algïš-yöreel blessing, benediction; farewell speech.
  • algïš- [ahlgïš-] to quarrel, to squabble.
  • algït- to widen, to broaden, to expand, to make wide, broad.
  • algïy [ahlgïy] small flat dish (used by hunters).
  • alïkčï recipient; sadïp alïkčï buyer.
  • alïksa- to want to take, buy; bo nomnu alïksap tur men I want to buy this book.
  • alïksak self-interested, mercenary; alïksak kiži self-interested person; alïksak čoruk self-interest, mercenariness.
  • alïksakčï profit-seeker, mercenary-minded person.
  • alïksančïg desirable.
  • alïksat- to make want to take, buy.
  • alïm debt; retribution, repayment. [<CT *alïm]
  • alïmna- to recover a debt.
  • alïmnïg having debts, obligations.
  • alïn face; alïn čok shameless; ïyadïr alïn čok shameless. [<CT *a:lïn]
  • alïn- to take for oneself; sagïš alïn- to guess, to suspect, to surmise; sezik alïn- to become suspect. [<CT *alïn-]
  • alïndïr-: sagïš alïndïr- to suggest; sezik alïndïr- to evoke suspicion. [<CT *alïndur-]
  • alïs distant; end, aim, purpose; root, source; alïs küzel cherished wish. [LM alus]
  • alïs- (alzïr) to to be taken; to fall in the hands of somebody; sookka alïs- to catch a cold, to catch a chill.
  • alïš- (alčïr) to take together, to take each other; sös alïš- to promise to each other. [<CT *alïš-]
  • alïš-beriš exchange.
  • Altay cf. Alday the Altay mountains.
  • am now; am-daa quite, already. [<CT *am]
  • ama measure of cloth, whose length is equal to its width; list; parlaar ama quire, printer’s sheet. [LM ama]
  • amadï head of the femur.
  • amagayla- to put on a halter. [LM amaγaila-]
  • amala- to measure cloth by its width. [LM amala-]
  • amala- to promise, to swear. [LM amala-]
  • amdan [ahmdan] the taste (of food). [LM amta(n)]
  • amdan-čimden taste.
  • amdannal- to be or become tasty, to have taste.
  • amdannaldïr- to make tasty.
  • amdannan- to taste, to sense the taste of; to regale oneself.
  • amdannïg tasty, delicious; amdannïg čem tasty food.
  • amdïï (~ amdïkï ~ amdïgï) the same, the very same; amdïï ool that very fellow; amdïï čaa not long ago, recently, just now; samolyot amdïï čaa keldi the airplane arrived just now; amdïï čïlïn in the next year; amdïï kiži my spouse, my wife, my husband (term used when referring to one’s spouse in his/her absence); amdïï kiži ažïldap turar my husband/wife is working.
  • Amerikanïŋ Kattïškan Štattarï United States of America.
  • amgï today’s, nowadays, current, present, contemporary; amgï üyede at present; amgï šagda nowadays; amgï čogaalčïlar contemporary writers.
  • amï life (biology); amï čok lifeless; amï čok boydus inanimate nature. [LM ami(n)]
  • amï-tïn life; amï-tïnïn al- to rescue, to save the life of; amï-tïnïn xaramnanma- to not spare the life of; amï-tïnïn artïnga kag- to risk one’s life.
  • amï-tïnnïg alive.
  • amï-xuu personal, private; ooŋ amï-xuu xeree-dir it is his/her own business; amï-xuuda, amï-xuuzunda personally, privately.
  • amïday namesake. [LM amidai]
  • amïdïra- to live, to exist. [LM amidura-]
  • amïdïral life, existence. [LM amidural]
  • amïlan- to be alive, to keep body and soul together, to subsist.
  • amïlïg alive, living, animate, organic; amïlïg amïtan living creature; amïlïg boydus living nature, organic nature.
  • amïr quiet, calm, placid; easy, not difficult; amïr-la-dïr be! peace onto you! amïr ažïl-dïr it is easy work; amïr eves not easy; amïr kiži placid person, easy-going person. [LM amur]
  • amïr-mendi health, well-being; amïr-mendi aytïr- to wish good health, to greet; amïr-mendi soluš- to exchange greetings; amïr-mendiŋni aytïrdïm how are you doing? (lit. I have asked your health); amïr-mendi čok without greeting, impolite, rude. [LM amir-mendü]
  • amïra- to rest, to console oneself, to take comfort; to rejoice, to enjoy, to be glad; sen kelgeniŋge aažok amïradïm I am very glad you have come. [LM amura-]
  • amïrak dear, beloved. [LM amuraγ]
  • amïral happiness; rest. [LM amural]
  • amïral cf. avïral salvation, protection; mercy.
  • amïrat- to make happy; to enjoy; bo bodal onu amïratkan this thought made him/her happy.
  • amïrga cf. avïrga bugle for luring maral deer.
  • amïrga-maŋgïs cf. amïrga-moos monster.
  • amïrga-moos (mythical) monster. [LM aburγa]
  • amïtan creature, animal; these all, those here, bunch; kandaay amïtan sen? what kind of creature are you?; azïral amïtannar domestic livestock; amïtannar aymaa the realm of animals; amïtan nomnarïŋ kančaar sen? what will you do with all those books of yours? [LM amitan]
  • amza- to taste. [LM amsa-]
  • ana well, then; ana at bolgan how terrible!
  • anaa usual, ordinary, simple; okay, fine, well, just so; anaa, anaa okay okay, I got the point, hm; anaa karandažïŋ bar be? do you have an ordinary pencil?; anaa-la simply, just, without ceremony; bis anaa-la parkže kïlaštap čorduvus we just walked to the park (for no particular reason); anaa eves unusual, uncommon, extraordinary, special, not just so; sen anaa eves beer čedip keldiŋ you came here for a reason; anaa eves ulus dur siler, onu utpaŋar you are special people, don’t forget it; anaa prosto just because, just so; sen čüü deeš činči bile oškažïp turgan sen? anaa prosto why is it you and Pearl were kissing? just because; anaada usually.
  • anaar cf. ïnaar to there, thither.
  • anay [ahnay] kid, lamb; čaš anay young kid; ivi anay fawn.
  • anay-kara darling, sweetie; anay-kara čažïndan from a tender age.
  • anayla- of a goat to kid, of a deer to give birth to a fawn.
  • anča cf. ïnča so much, this much.
  • anča- cf. ïnča- to do thus.
  • ančïg boring, irksome, bothersome, unpleasant, disagreeable, annoying; ungainly, clumsy; ančïg kiži nuisance, bore; ančïg kïlïn- to pester, to bother, to bore; to tease, to excite; ančïg čugaa unpleasant talk.
  • ančïgzïn- to become angry
  • ančïgzïndïr- to make angry, to annoy.
  • anda cf. ïnda at him, her; there. [<CT *anda ~ *anta]
  • andag cf. ïndag like that, thus. [<CT *andag ~ *antag]
  • andazïn plow. [←Kh andis(an), LM anĵisu(n)]
  • anïyak [ahnïyak] young; anïyaamda in my youth; anïyaaŋdan from the time of your youth; anïyaktar youth, the young people; sovyet anïyaktar the Soviet youth; anïyaktar organizaciyazï youth organisation.
  • animal, game. [LM ang]
  • aŋ-meŋ all kind of game, fauna.
  • aŋaa (~ aa) thither, here; aŋaa užuražïr bis let’s meet here; aŋaa bar go thither.
  • aŋčï hunter. [LM aŋči(n)]
  • aŋčïgaš small animal.
  • aŋdar- to turn, to turn over, to overturn, to topple over; to plough, to till; tonnu aŋdara daara- to turn a coat; čer aŋdar- to plough the soil. [<CT *agtar-]
  • aŋgada- to lose one’s head, to be stupefied, puzzled, bwildered, perplexed, to be struck dumb; kortkaš aŋgaday ber- to be struck dumb from fear.
  • aŋgadat- to cause to be stupefied, puzzled, bewildered; to stun.
  • aŋgï apart from, separate from; except, besides; oon aŋgï, aŋgïda besides, in addition to; aŋgï-aŋgï various; ol törelderinden aŋgï čurttap turar s/he lives separate from his/her relatives. [LM anggi]
  • aŋgï [ahŋgï] class; ažïlčïn aŋgï working class. [LM anggi]
  • aŋgïla- to separate, to divide, to isolate, to cut off, to delimit; to distinguish, to discern, to make out.
  • aŋgïlaaškïn separation, division, isolation, delimitation.
  • aŋgïlat- to let separate, to divide, distinguish.
  • aŋgïr a species of duck. [LM anggir]
  • aŋmaar (~ ambar) granary. [←Rus ambar]
  • aŋna- to hunt; adïgnï aŋnaarï bear hunt.
  • aŋnaaškïn hunt.
  • aŋnïg teeming with game animals; aŋnïg tayga forest teeming with game.
  • aŋzak loving to hunt; hunting; aŋzak ït hunting hound.
  • aŋzïrak loving to hunt.
  • ap taking; cf. al- to take. [< *alïp]
  • apar- (apaar) to appear; to become; to have to, to be necessary; ol baškï apargan s/he became leader; küs apargan it became autumn; sen čoruur apaar sen you must go; sen kelir apaar dïr sen you must come; emnedir apar- to have to be treated.
  • appar- to bring. [< ap bar- <CT *alïp bar-]
  • aptara box, chest. [LM abdara]
  • ar cf. adïr wait!
  • ar- to become meagre, to become thin. [<CT *ha:r-]
  • ara the place between; distance; ooŋ arazïnda meanwhile; čïlgïnïŋ arazïnda among the horse herd; arazïn üzükte- to break mutually. [<CT *a:ra]
  • araa thread (on a rifle). [LM araγa]
  • ara-albatï subject (of a country).
  • araatan predatory, predator; araatan aŋ predator; araatan kuš bird of prey. [LM araγatan, ariyatan]
  • araatanzïg brutal, ruthless; araatanzïg dayzïn ruthless enemy; araatanzïg darlal brutal exploitation.
  • araga liquor, wine, vodka. [LM araki(n)]
  • aragala- to drink hard, to booze.
  • aragalaaškïn hard drinking, alcoholism.
  • aragalat- to treat to liquor; to make a drunkard of.
  • aragazïrak loving to drink, inclined to drinking hard.
  • aralaš- to mix, to mingle with, to associate with, to socialize with; to alternate, to take turns.
  • aralaškak alternating, intermittently.
  • aralaštïr- to let associate with; to let alternate.
  • aralažïïškïn intercourse, interchange, alternation.
  • aralïg different, dissimilar (e.g. of the harvest, grasses, squirrels in the tayga); bo čïlïn taraa aralïg-dïr this year the grain is not the same everywhere.
  • aramayla- to ask to wait, to ask time for reflection.
  • aramna- to stop, to cease, to discontinue, to come to an end.
  • aramnïg satisfactory, passable, not too bad; poor, indifferent, not much of a.
  • arat people; Mool Arat Respublika Mongolian People’s Republic. [LM arad]
  • aray silently, quietly, scarcely; aray boorda, aray dep with difficulty, just so, hardly, barely. [LM arai]
  • arbak handful.
  • arbay barley. [LM arbai]
  • arbïda- to increase, to become more; maldïŋ sanï arbïday bergen the number of livestock increased. [LM arbida-]
  • arbïn abundant, plentiful, lavish, rich; arbïn ahš-čem lavish food; arbïn xöreŋgi abundant means. [LM arbin]
  • arbïš silk.
  • arga means, way, scheme, method; way-out, possibility; strategy; trick; ïndïg arga-bile in this way; köör arga means to see. [LM arγa]
  • arga [ahrga] mountain forest. [<CT *arka]
  • arga-arïg mountain forests and woods.
  • arga-ïyaš mountain forests and trees, woods.
  • arga-sïn mountain forests and ridges.
  • arga-süme advice.
  • argak [ahrgak] edge, selvage. [<CT *argak]
  • argala- [ahrgala-] to go in or through the mountain forests.
  • argala- to soothe (a child); to use a ruse, strategy. [LM arγala-]
  • argalïg possible; argalïg bol- to be possible; argalïg bolza if possible.
  • argamčï lasso. [LM argamĵi]
  • argamčïla- to catch or hold with a lasso. [LM argamĵi]
  • argan bad, worn out, emaciated, scraggy, skinny, meagre, thin.
  • argar mountain sheep. [<CT *arkar]
  • argažok without means, impossible.
  • argï- to weave, to plait, to braid. [<CT *arku-]
  • argï- to go, to ride, to travel, to journey.
  • argïg woven or knitted fabric; embroidery.
  • argïkčï weaver, knitter.
  • argïkčïla- to work as a weaver, knitter.
  • arğïmal woven, knitted; woven or knitted fabric; embroidery.
  • arï northern slope of a mountain. [LM aru]
  • arï bee; wasp; düktüg arï bumble-bee; arï öö wasp nest, beehive; honeycomb; arï ügee beehive. [<CT *a:rï]
  • arï- to become pure, clean, clear. [<CT *arï-]
  • arïg pure, clean, clear; arïg čüve ~ arïgže money. [<CT *arïg]
  • arïg woods, forest. [<CT *arïg]
  • arïk irrigation channel, irrigation ditch. [<CT *a:rïk]
  • arïk basket. [LM aruγ]
  • arïk cf. argan meagre. [<CT *a:ruk]
  • arïl- (arlïr) to clear up, to clear oneself, to become clear, to disperse; xemniŋ dožu arlï bergen the river’s ice got cleared; ïš arlï bergen the smoke dispersed; aht arlï bergen the horse dashed away. [<CT *arïl-]
  • arïn face; person (in grammar); page; arïn čok shameless. [cf. CT *a:lïn]
  • arïn- (arnïr) to brandish, to wave, to raise; čuduruun arïn- to brandish one’s fists; dayaŋgïïš arïn- to brandish a stick.
  • arïn-nüür face; conscience; arïn-nüür čok having no conscience.
  • arïn-nüürlüg (~ nüürlüg) conscientious.
  • arïnnïg with a face, -faced; kalbak arïnnïg broad-faced; tögerik arïnnïg round-faced.
  • armiya army. [←Ru armija]
  • art mountain pass. [<CT *art]
  • art- to load, to load up. [<CT *a:rt-]
  • art- [ahrt-] to remain, to be left (over); artïp kal- to stay, to remain. [<CT *art-]
  • artta- to go through, to go over, to stride, to step over, to overstep, to climb or get over.
  • artï back side; west side; bažïŋ artïnda behind the house. [<CT *a:rt]
  • artïïškïn remainder, rest, remnant, vestige.
  • artïk more, better, superior; surpluss, redundant, in excess; waisted, useless, unnecessary. [<CT *artuk]
  • artïkšïl excess, surplus.
  • artïnčï remainder, rest, remnant, vestige; waste products; (grammatical) particle.
  • artïš juniper. [<CT *artuč]
  • artïža- to fumigate with the smoke of juniper.
  • artïžan- to fumigate oneself with the smoke of juniper; to smoke (tobacco).
  • artïžat- to let fumigate with the smoke of juniper.
  • arttïr more, over-; arttïr ber- to give more (than needed); arttïr küüset- to overfulfil, to exceed.
  • arttïr- to let load.
  • arttïr- [ahrttïr-] to let remain, to leave over. [<CT *artur-]
  • arzay- to be steep. [LM arĵai-]
  • arzïlaŋ [ahrzïlaŋ] lion. [<CT *arslan]
  • aržaan water from a mineral spring. [←Rus aržan ←LM arasiyan]
  • aržaŋ [ahržaŋ] strong liquor of the second distillation.
  • aržïïl [ahržïïl] towel, handkerchief. [LM alčigur]
  • aržïïn [ahržïïn] arshin (measure of length). [←Rus aršin]
  • aržïmak [ahržïmak] leather wineskin (for liquor or kumys).
  • as ermine. [<CT *as]
  • as a little bit. [<CT *a:z]
  • as- to lose one’s way, to get lost. [<CT *a:z-]
  • as- [ahs-] to hang, to suspend; to weigh. [<CT *as-]
  • aska- [ahska-] to be lame, to limp. [<CT *aksa-]
  • askak [ahskak] lame, limping. [<CT *aksak]
  • askaŋna- to limp, to hobble; to hop on one leg.
  • askaŋgïrla- cf. askaŋna- to limp, to hop on one leg.
  • askï peg, rack, stand; shed, lean-to, awning; gallows, gibbet. [<CT *askï]
  • askïg cf. askï peg, awning, gallows.
  • askïm [ahskïm] obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery (of horses). [LM aγsum]
  • askïmčï cf. askïm obstinate, restive.
  • askïmna- of horses to be obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery; to gambol, to frisk. [LM aγsumla-]
  • askïr stallion; male of an animal; askïr dagaa rooster; askïr kas gander; askïr xavan boar; askïr ït male dog; askïr öör čïlgï a herd of horses; askïr negey ton fur coat made of sheepskin (with long wool). [<CT *adgïr]
  • askïr-čavaa mushroom.
  • askïr-čavaala- to gather mushrooms.
  • askïrlan- of a stallion to mate with a mare; to become sexually excited, horny.
  • askïïš cf. askï peg, awning, gallows.
  • aspagar unclenched (of the fists).
  • aspak claw, paw; aspaanče kir- to fall into one’s claws.
  • aspakta- to seize.
  • aspan locust.
  • aspay- to unclench, to part, to open (e.g. of the fingers).
  • astïgïr slanting; astïgïr karaktar slanting eyes.
  • astïk- to be lost, to get lost; to doze off, to forget oneself, to lose consciousness.
  • astïk- [ahstïk-] to hang on to, to cling, to hang by, to hang down, to droop.
  • astïn- to hang, to be hanging, to be suspended, to hang over; to hang oneself; čuruk xanada astïngan tur the map is hanging on the wall.
  • astïnčak slanting (of the eyes); hanging, pendant; astïnčak kövürüg suspension bridge.
  • astïr- to lead astray, to delude; oruktan astïr- to lead astray.
  • astïr- [ahstïr-] to let hang, to make hang, to be hung up. [<CT *astïr-]
  • hunger; hungry. [<CT *a:č]
  • ahš-čem food. [<CT *aš]
  • aš-čemnig cf. aštïg-čemnig having food; hospitable.
  • aš-čüt famine, starvation, killing weather.
  • aš- to pass, to cross, to go through; to surpass; to win, to overcome; (of the sun) to set; dag aš- to cross the mountains; bergelerni aš- to overcome difficulties; xün aža bergen the sun set; boskunče čüve ašpa- to eat nothing (nothing passes his throat). [<CT *a:š-]
  • aš- [ahš-] to open; arïnnï aš- to open a page, to turn pages, to flip through. [<CT *ač-]
  • ašak [aššak] husband; old man; ooŋ ašaa her husband; kokay ašak ~ končug ašak wolf. [cf. CT *abïčka]
  • ašak-kaday married couple, spouses, husband and wife; ašak-kaday boluš- to become husband and wife, to get married.
  • ašak-kuryak (~ ašak-kuyak) married couple, spouses, husband and wife.
  • aškar-čemger- to feed; to treat, to regale.
  • ašta- to be hungry. [<NE *ašta-]
  • ašta- [ahšta-] to tidy, to clean, to sweep; to weed.
  • aštat- to make hungry.
  • aštïg-čemnig having food; hospitable.
  • aštïr- to lose a bet, wager; to be defeated, to sustain a defeat.
  • aštïr- [ahštïr-] to cause to open. [<CT *ačtur-]
  • aštïrïïškïn loss; defeatism.
  • aštïrïkčï defeatist.
  • at name; title; reputation; seeŋ adïŋ kïmïl? what is your name?; nomnuŋ adï the title of the book; baraannarnïŋ adï the designation of the articles; ïttïn adï the name of the dog; čüve adï substantive, noun; demdek adï adjective; san adï numeral; at ornu pronoun; adï-bile in the name of, under the name of; adïŋga addressed to; at sal- to indicate, to sign; bak atka kir-, adï baksïra- to to get a bad reputation, to be disgraced. [<CT *a:t]
  • at misfortune, trouble, accident; terror, horror; at čüve! terrible!; at kïl- to bring misfortune; to cause trouble.
  • aht horse; roan; munar aht riding horse; čühk söörtür aht horse for carrying burdens; čeler aht trotter; bazar aht, čïraalaar aht ambler; aht küžü horsepower; aht xïlï horse hair; aht derii horse harness; ahttar boots. [<CT *at]
  • at- (~ adïp kag-) to forget, to neglect; to leave behind, to drop, to let fall, to lose one’s way, to get lost; bïzaŋčï baldïzïn adïp kaapkan the carpenter forgot his axe.
  • at- [aht-] to shoot, to strike; to take at one’s word; ča at- to shoot using a bow; boo (bile) at- to shoot with a gun; daŋ at- to dawn; daŋ adïp keldi dawn broke; onu xün adïpkan s/he got a sunstroke; atkan ok deg like a shot arrow. [<CT *at-]
  • at-šola name, nick-name, pseudonym.
  • atkaar backwards, back, behind.
  • atkaarla- to fall backwards, back, behind, to recede, to retreat, to abandon; bergeler murnunga atkaarlava- to be not past the difficulties.
  • atkaarlaaškïn retreat.
  • atkak [ahtkak] notch on the hook of a harpoon.
  • ahtkar- to seat on horseback; to equip, to fit out. [<CT *atkar-]
  • atkïla- to fire shots, to shoot one shot after the other.
  • atpak rack for a horse’s harness.
  • ahttan- to mount (a horse); to set out (on horseback); ahttanïr čarïk a horse’s left side, from which it is mounted. [<CT *atlan-]
  • ahttandïr- to seat on horseback; to equip, to fit out.
  • attaš namesake. [<CT *a:ttaš]
  • attïğ having a name, named, called; Gagarin attïg kudumču a street named Gagarin. [<CT *a:tlïg]
  • ahttïg having a horse; on horseback; horseman; ahttïg kiži horseman; ahttïg šerig cavalry; ahttïg šerigži cavalrist; men ahttïg keldim I came on horseback. [<CT *atlïg]
  • attïn- to be forgotten, lost, to get lost.
  • attïn- [ahttïn-] to scold, to curse, to swear.
  • attïn- [ahttïn-] to shoot oneself; of a shot to go off. [cf. CT *atïn-]
  • attïndïr- [ahttïndïr-] to undergo a scolding, cursing.
  • attïndïrïïškïn swearing, bad language, swear-word; curse.
  • attïnïš- [ahttïnïš-] to scold or curse one antoher, to swear at one another.
  • attïr- [ahttïr-] to let or cause to shoot; to be shot. [<CT *attur-]
  • ava mother.
  • avakïm mommy.
  • avaangïr [ahvaangïr] adroit, dexterous, deft, able, skillful; prompt, swift; smart, nimble, quick-fingered.
  • avaansa promotion. [←Rus avans]
  • avagay sir, madam. [LM abaqai]
  • aval take it. [< ap al]
  • avalïškï(lar) (~ avaškï(lar)) mother and child(ren).
  • avay mommy, mum (term of address); avayïm mother! (exclamation of fear).
  • avïra cf. azïra heavens!
  • avïra-azïra goodness! heavens!
  • avïral salvation, deliverance; protection; mercy; help; amnesty; seeŋ avïralïŋ-bile, seeŋ avïralïŋda thanks to you, owing to you. [LM abural]
  • avïralda- to ask for, to beg; to take care of, to spare, to protect.
  • avïraldïg beneficial, beneficient, offering help, protective; merciful; avïraldïg alday-taŋdïm my merciful Altay taiga; avïraldïg kiži person helping others.
  • avïrar- (~ avïraŋna-) to be or become dishevelled, tousled, tattered.
  • avïraš dishevelled, tattered, tousled, shaggy; avïraš baš dügü tousled hair.
  • avïrga bugle for luring maral deer.
  • avïrgan [ahvïrgan] flying squirrel.
  • avïrganna- to hunt flying squirrels.
  • avïyaas hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham. [LM abiyas]
  • avïyaasta- to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
  • avïyaastan- to pretend, to feign; čüge avïyaastanïr sen? why are you pretending?
  • avïyaastïg hypocritical, sly, insinuating.
  • avïyaazïn cf. avïyaas hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham.
  • avïyaazïnnan- cf. avïyaasta- to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
  • ay moon; month; ay čaazï new moon; beginning of the month; ay ergizi end of the month; on beštiŋ ayï full moon; ay tutturarï lunar eclipse; bir ay January; beš ay May; on iyi ay December; čaynïŋ baškï ayï June (first month of the summer); čaynïŋ ortaa ayï July (middle month of the summer); čaynïŋ adak ayï August (last month of the summer). [<CT *a:y]
  • ay a species of bulbous plant.
  • ay: ay de- to drive up, to drive off, to drive away; to call to order; maldï ay de- to drive up the livestock; ïttï ay de- to drive away the dog.
  • ay-bes edible roots, edible tubers.
  • aya cross-bow; foot-bow; a trap with self-firing bow. [<NE *aya]
  • ayaar quiet(ly), soft(ly), slow(ly). [LM ayar]
  • ayak cup; bir ayak šay iš- to drink one cup of tea. [<CT *ayak]
  • ayak-sava dishery, crockery.
  • ayala- to hunt using a cross-bow; foot-bow, trap with self-firing bow.
  • ayalga melody, motif; dialect; accent, pronunciation. [LM ayalγu]
  • ayan external appearance, form; fashion; ayan kir- to look well, to grow prettier; ayan tut- to find pleasure in (e.g. music); ayan sözü interjection. [LM aya]
  • ayan-čoruk journey.
  • ayan-čorukču traveler, tourist.
  • ayančok very, extraordinarily, particularly; ayančok eki very good.
  • ayanna- to put in good shape, to make look well, to fashion; to harmonize, to go well with, to be in keeping with.
  • ayannan- to be in good shape, to look well; to dress up, to smarten oneself up, to doll oneself up; öreel ayannanï bergen the room looked well.
  • ayannaškak harmonious, rhythmic; rhymed.
  • ayannïg beautiful, fashionable.
  • ayas clear, clear weather; ayas xün clear day; ayas deer clear sky. [<CT *ayas]
  • ayas- to clear up (of the weather).
  • ayazïïčal clearing up quickly.
  • aybï commission, charge, order, errand, request.
  • aybïčï servant, messenger.
  • aybïla- to ask, request, order to do; to hire for a job.
  • aybïlakčï customer, client; request, order.
  • aybïlat- to be requested to do.
  • aydïŋ (moon)light. [<CT *a:ytïŋ]
  • aydïŋna- to be lighted (by the moon); of the light to be dim.
  • aydïs cf. ayïs burning of incense.
  • ayïïl accident, bad luck; danger, threat; ayïïlga tavarïš- to have an accident, to run into bad luck; ayïïl čok safe. [LM ayul]
  • ayïïldïg dangerous, threatening; critical; ayïïldïg kiži dangerous person; ayïïldïg üye critical moment.
  • ayïïr pitchfork.
  • ayïs burning of incense (to amend for sins); blessing.
  • ayït- (aytïr) to point (out); to say that, to state, to explain; to teach. [<CT *ayt-]
  • ayïtka- to report. [cf. LM ailadqa-]
  • ayïtkal report; lecture. [cf. LM ailadqal]
  • aylaŋ-kuškaš nightingale.
  • aylaŋ-saaskan jay.
  • aymak tribe, clan, province, region, realm. [LM aimag]
  • aymak-söök tribes, peoples, nationalities; aymak-söök ïlgaar čoruk nationalism.
  • ayma- to get lost, to lose one’s head, to become confused, to be taken aback; kortkanïndan ol aymay bergen out of fear s/he became confused.
  • ayma- (of a bullet) to miss the target.
  • aymaara- to become absentminded, slow-(witted), to get lost, to lose one’s head, to become confused, to be taken aback.
  • aymaargak absentminded, slow(witted).
  • aymat- to lead astry, to delude, to divert, to distract.
  • aytïg indication, directions, instructions.
  • aytïïskïn indication, instructions, directives.
  • aytïlga indication, directions, instructions.
  • aytïr- to ask, to inquire; to interrogate; to ask the bride’s parents permission for the marriage. [<CT *aytur-]
  • aytïrïg question, matter, issue, problem; čugula aytïrïg main issue; aytïrïg demdee question mark.
  • aytïrïglïg doubtful, in question, undecided; having a question, issue; silerge aytïrïglïg keldim I have come to you with an issue.
  • aytïrïš- to ask one another.
  • aza evil spirit, devil; aza alzïn! may the devil take it! to hell with it!; aza taakpïzï dried (puff-ball)-mushroom (lit. devil’s tobacco).
  • aza-börgü tumbleweed, (tumbling) pigweed (Amaranthus Alba, Amaranthaceae) (lit. devil’s hat).
  • aza-buk evil spirits.
  • aza-ogu feathergrass (Stipa pennata) (lit. devil’s arrow).
  • aza-šulbus evil spirits.
  • aza-xortan evil spirits; sly; insidious, perfidious.
  • azar [ahzar] stock; shed, lean-on, awining (to protect goods against the rain or sun).
  • azar [ahzar] heaven; azarlar heavenly beings.
  • azbuka alphabet. [←Rus azbuka]
  • azï [ahzï] or; right, eh?; kïm baarïl, men be azï sen be? who will go, me or you? [<CT *azu]
  • azïg canine tooth, tusk, fang; mamont azïglarï tusks of a mamoth; azïg salï moustache, whiskers. [<CT *azïg]
  • azïg corner, angle; border; kudumčunuŋ azïïnga tur- to stand on the corner of the street.
  • azïgla- of the canine teeth to come out; to gnaw with canine teeth; to look for (connection, opportunity, trouble).
  • azïglïg having canine teeth, tusks, fangs.
  • azïma(l) [ahzïma(l)] male animal (ram, stallion) with only one testicle; weakling. [cf. LM asaman]
  • azïn- (astïr) to wear attached to the girdle; bižek azïn- to wear a knife attached to the girdle. [<CT *asïn-]
  • azïr- to sneeze. [<CT *asur-]
  • azïra dancer wearing a bull’s mask with horns. [LM azari]
  • azïra [ahzïra] heavens! good gracious!
  • azïra- [ahzïra-] to feed, to nourish; to rear, to bring up; to domesticate, to tame. [LM asara-]
  • azïral feeding (of livestock); forage, fodder, feed; domestication, taming; rearing, breeding, maintaining; domesticated. [LM asaral]
  • azïran- to feed oneself, to earn a livelihood for oneself.
  • azïrat- to let rear, bring up; to be fed, to be reared, brought up; to be someone’s dependant.
  • azïtkï peg (e.g. to hang clothes on).
  • azïtkïïš peg (e.g. to hang clothes on).
  • ažaa- [ahžaa-] to feed, to take care of (small children, animals); to harvest, to gather in; to put away, to store; to bury, to inter; čaš urugnu ažaa- to take care of the young children; čaš maldï ažaa- to take care of the young animals; taraa ažaa- to harvest the grain.
  • ažaalga feeding, rearing, maintaining; harvesting, gathering in, storing; economy, savings, preservation; mal ažaalgazï the keeping of livestock; taraa ažaalgazï the harvest of the grain; akša-xöreŋgi ažaalgazï preservation of means.
  • ažam hunger-, feeling hungry; ažam čïl a hunger year.
  • ažamïk hungry, feeling hungry; eager, avid, not satiated.
  • ažamïrgï hungry, feeling hungry; eager, avid, not satiated.
  • ažamna- to be hungry, to feel hungry; to be eager, avid, to be not satiated.
  • ažaptan- to be hungry, to feel hungry; to be eager, avid, to be not satiated.
  • ažï-töl children.
  • ažï- to become sour, to turn bad; to be sad, to grieve; süt ažïy bergen the milk has turned sour. [<CT *a:čï-]
  • ažï- [ahžï-] to open up, to become open; oruk ažïy bergen the road has opened; sagïžï ažï- to breathe again, to breathe freely; to take a long breath.
  • ažïdïïškïn fermentation, souring.
  • ažïdïïškïn [ahžïdïïškïn] discovery; ertemniŋ čaa ažïdïïškïnnarï the new discoveries of science.
  • ažïg sour, hot, bitter; grieve, sorrow; ažïg süt sour milk; ažïg em bitter medicin; ažïg sook sharp frost. [<CT *a:čïg]
  • ažïg mountain pass.
  • ažïg better; more than; čüs ažïg more than a hundred. [<CT *a:šug]
  • ažïg-čovulaŋ pangs, (serious) disease; harsh fate.
  • ažïgla- to use, to utilize, to employ, to exploit. [LM asiγla-]
  • ažïglat- to let use, utilize, employ, exploit; to be used, utilized, employed, exploited.
  • ažïglattïn- to be used, utilized, employed, exploited.
  • ažïglal application, utilization. [LM asiγlal]
  • ažïk open; candid, frank; legal; glade, clearing in a forest; ažïk ežik open door; ažïk čagaa open letter; ažïk setkildig having an open mind; ažïk badïlaaškïn voting by show of hands; ažïk xural open meeting; ažïk kiži candid person; ažïk ünner vowels; ažïk eves ünner consonants. [<CT *ačuk]
  • ažïk [ahžïk] income, earnings; profit, gain, yield, return; benefit, good, advantage; ažïk sür- to pursue a profit. [LM ačuγ]
  • ažïkta- to go to a glade a clearing (in the forest).
  • ažïktïg useful, advantageous, profitable.
  • ažïl work, job, labour; matter; ažïl čok without work, jobless; ažïl xünü working day; ažïl töleviri salary, wages. [LM aĵil]
  • ažïl-agïy economy.
  • ažïl-ažïk fruits of labour, earnings.
  • ažïl-iš work, labour, business.
  • ažïl-išči worker, labourer.
  • ažïl-xerek matters, business.
  • ažïlčï working, labour; ažïlčï aht draught horse; ažïlčï xep working clothes; ažïlčï čon the working people. [LM aĵilči]
  • ažïlčïn workers’, worker-; industrious, hardworking; ažïlčïn aŋgï workers’ class; ažïlčïn küžü working force. [LM aĵilčin]
  • ažïlda- to work. [LM aĵilla-]
  • ažïldakčï worker; ertem ažïldakčïzï scholar. [LM aĵillaγči]
  • ažïldaš- to work together.
  • ažïldat- to let work, to give work; to set in motion; motornu ažïldat- to set the motor in motion.
  • ažïn- to become angry.
  • ažïnčak fiery, irascible.
  • ažïndï ferment, leaven, yeast.
  • ažïr over, above, through; tayga ažïr uš- to fly over the mountain forest; ažïr čarïgdal overexpenditure, overdraft.
  • ažïr- to cause to cross, to cause to pass; to fulfil, to complete (a plan); to swallow; maldï art ažïr- to let the livestock cross the ridge; plannï ažïr- to fulfil the plan; čem ažïr- to swallow food. [<CT *a:šur-]
  • ažïrbas it is nothing, no matter, o.k., all right.
  • ažïrt- to let swallow. [<CT *a:šurt-]
  • ažït- to let become sour, to let turn bad. [<CT *a:čït-]
  • ažït- [ahžït-] to open; ežikti ažït- to open the door; aksïn ažït- to open one’s mouth.
  • ažïtkï ferment, leaven, yeast; hops.
  • ažïttïn- to open, to go open.