Anton Pavlovich Chekhov

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[167] Антон Павлович Чехов

А. П. Чехов 1860 чылдың январь 17-де Таганрогка төрүтүнген. 1879 чылда Чехов гимназияны дооскаш, Москвага келгеш, Москва университединиң медицина факультединге кирген. 1884 чылда Чехов университетти дооскан.

Чеховтуң чурттап турар бажыңының хаалгазында: 'Доктор А. П. Чехов' деп бижиишкин көстүп келген. Удаваанда Чехов литературлуг улуг чогаал 'Хову' деп повесть бижип эгелээн. Ону сураглыг чогаалчы Гаршин номчааш: 'Россияда чаа бирги чергениң чогаалчы тыптып келген-дир' деп чугаалаан.

Сезен чылдар үезинде Чехов ырак Сахалин ортулуунче аян-чорук кылган. Бодунуң ынаар чораанының дугайында Чехов ‘Сахалин ортулук’ деп улуг ном бижээн. Сахалин чорааны Чеховтуң кадыынга аар болган болгаш ооң соонда аарыгзынар апарган.

Чехов Москваны каггаш, көдээге чурттаар деп шиитпирлээш, Москвадан чүс верста черде улуг эвес имение садып алган. Аңаа Чехов бодунуң эң эки элээн хөй чогаалдарын бижээн.

Чехов тараачыннарга эмчи дузаламчызын көргүзеринден кажан-даа ойталаваан. Тараачыннар-биле холбашканы - оларның амыдыралның ханызынче көөр арганы Чеховка берген. [168] Ооң түңнелинде ‘Тараачыннар’ деп сураглыг тоожуну бижээн.

Чеховтуң кадыы улам баксыраан болгаш хөй чылдар иштинде эмнедир апарган. Крымның мурнуу эриинде Ялтага эмнетпишаан тургаш, Чехов чогаал ажылын кагбайн, харын кайгамчык мастерствону чедип шыдаан.

Чехов чүгле тоожулар болгаш рассказтар эвес, харын шиилер база бижээн. Москваның аныяк, чаа-ла тыптып келген чечен театры Чеховтуң ‘Чайка’ деп шиизин үндүрген. Ол шии театрны алдаржыткан. Ол театрның сценазынга Чеховтуң ‘Үш Угбашкылар’ база ‘Вишнёвый Сад’ деп шиилерин эң-не баштай үндүрген.

Чехов Ялтага чурттап тура, Лев Толстой-биле, М. Горький-биле үргүлчү ужуражып турган. Толстойну Чехов бүгү назынында улуг чогаалчы деп хүндүлеп чораан. Аныяк М. Горькийниң ажылын Чехов сонуургап, бедик үнелеп чораан.

1902 чылда Эртемнер академиязы Максим Горькийни бодунуң хүндүлүг кежигүнүнге соңгаан. Полицияның сүрүп чорууру пролетарий болгаш революсчу Горькийни соңгаанынга царь таарзынмаан. Соңгулданың дугайында II [ийиги] Николайга айыткаан.

Царь мындыг резолюция бижээн: ‘Эмин эрткен-не чүве-дир.’ Ол дээрге соңгулданы күш чок болдурарынга четчир турган. Ынчаарга хүндүлүг академиктерниң ийизи чогаалчылар Владимир Короленко база Антон Чехов аңаа удурланып, академик аттардан ойталааннар.

Ооң аразында Чеховтуң кадыы хүн-бүрүде-ле улам баксыраан; 1904 чылдың июль 2-де Чехов мөчээн.

А. П. Чехов бодунуң алдарлыг чогаалдарында царь чазактыг тургузугнуң үезинде дарлаар, дарладыр ёзуга холбашкан базымча, дорамчылалдыг чоруктарны мергени-биле кочулап, чырык үе дээш, кижиниң аас-кежии дээш эчис күзелин илередип турган. Кижиге идегел, бодунуң эң эки салымы дээш демисел чогаалчы Чеховтуң кол шынарлары болур.

Transliteration

[167] Anton Pavlovič Čexov

A. P. Čexov 1860 čïldïŋ yanvar’ 17-de Taganrogka törütüngen. 1879 čïlda Čexov gimnaziyanï dooskaš, Moskvaga kelgeš, Moskva universitediniŋ medicina fakul’tedinge kirgen. 1884 čïlda Čexov universitetti dooskan.

Čexovtuŋ čurttap turar bažïŋïnïŋ xaalgazïnda: ‘Doktor A. P. Čexov’ dep bižiiškin köstüp kelgen. Udavaanda Čexov literaturlug ulug čogaal ‘Xovu’ dep povest’ bižip egeleen. Onu suraglïg čogaalčï Garšin nomčaaš: ‘Rossiyada čaa birgi čergeniŋ čogaalčï tïptïp kelgen-dir’ dep čugaalaan.

Sezen čïldar üyezinde Čexov ïrak Saxalin ortuluunče ayan-čoruk kïlgan. Bodunuŋ ïnaar čoraanïnïŋ dugayïnda Čexov ‘Saxalin ortuluk’ dep ulug nom bižeen. Saxalin čoraanï Čexovtuŋ kadïïnga aar bolgan bolgaš ooŋ soonda aarïgzïnar apargan.

Čexov Moskvanï kaggaš, ködeege čurttaar dep šiitpirleeš, Moskvadan čüs versta čerde ulug eves imeniye sadïp algan. Aŋaa Čexov bodunuŋ eŋ eki eleen xöy čogaaldarïn bižeen.

Čexov taraačïnnarga emči duzalamčïzïn körgüzerinden kažan-daa oytalavaan. Taraačïnnar-bile xolbaškanï – olarnïŋ amïdïralnïŋ xanïzïnče köör arganï Čexovka bergen. [168] Ooŋ tüŋnelinde ‘Taraačïnnar’ dep suraglïg toožunu bižeen.

Čexovtuŋ kadïï ulam baksïraan bolgaš xöy čïldar ištinde emnedir apargan. Krïmnïŋ murnuu eriinde Yaltaga emnetpišaan turgaš, Čexov čogaal ažïlïn kagbayn, xarïn kaygamčïk masterstvonu čedip šïdaan.

Čexov čügle toožular bolgaš rasskaztar eves, xarïn šiiler baza bižeen. Moskvanïŋ anïyak, čaa-la tïptïp kelgen čečen teatrï Čexovtuŋ ‘Čayka’ dep šiizin ündürgen. Ol šii teatrnï aldaržïtkan. Ol teatrnïŋ scenazïnga Čexovtuŋ ‘Üš Ugbaškïlar’ baza ‘Višnyovïy Sad’ dep šiilerin eŋ-ne baštay ündürgen.

Čexov Yaltaga čurttap tura, Lev Tolstoy-bile, M. Gor’kiy-bile ürgülčü užuražïp turgan. Tolstoynu Čexov bügü nazïnïnda ulug čogaalčï dep xündülep čoraan. Anïyak M. Gor’kiyniŋ ažïlïn Čexov sonuurgap, bedik ünelep čoraan.

1902 čïlda Ertemner akademiyazï Maksim Gor’kiyni bodunuŋ xündülüg kežigününge soŋgaan. Policiyanïŋ sürüp čoruuru proletariy bolgaš revolyusču Gor’kiyni soŋgaanïnga car’ taarzïnmaan. Soŋguldanïŋ dugayïnda II [iyigi] Nikolayga ayïtkaan.

Car’ mïndïg rezolyuciya bižeen: ‘Emin ertken-ne čüve-dir.’ Ol deerge soŋguldanï küš čok boldurarïnga četčir turgan. Ïnčaarga xündülüg akademikterniŋ iyizi čogaalčïlar Vladimir Korolenko baza Anton Čexov aŋaa udurlanïp, akademik attardan oytalaannar.

Ooŋ arazïnda Čexovtuŋ kadïï xün-bürüde-le ulam baksïraan; 1904 čïldïŋ iyul’ 2-de Čexov möčeen.

A. P. Čexov bodunuŋ aldarlïg čogaaldarïnda car’čazaktïg turguzugnuŋ üyezinde darlaar, darladïr yozuga xolbaškan bazïmča, doramčïlaldïg čoruktarnï mergeni-bile kočulap, čïrïk üye deeš, kižiniŋ aas-kežii deeš ečis küzelin ileredip turgan. Kižige idegel, bodunuŋ eŋ eki salïmï deeš demisel čogaalčï Čexovtuŋ kol šïnarlarï bolur.

Translation

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov

A. P. Chekhov was born in Taganrog on January 17 in the year 1860. In the year 1879, Chekhov finished grammar school, and he came to Moscow and entered the Faculty of Medicin of Moscow University. In the year 1884, Chekhov finished university.

On the door of the house where Chekhov was living, the writing 'Doctor A. P. Chekhov' was visible. Soon Chekhov started writing his great literary work, the novel called 'The Steppe'. After the famous writer Garshin had read it, he claimed that in Russia, a new, first-class writer had been found.

In the period of the eighties, Chekhov undertook a journey to the far island of Sakhalin. With regard to his journey to there, Chekhov wrote a great book called 'The Island of Sakhalin'. The journey to Sakhalin was heavy for Chekhov’s health, and afterwards it appeared he had taken ill.

Chekhov decided to leave Moscow and settle in the countryside, and he bought a small estate in a place, a hundred werst from Moscow. There, Chekhov wrote several of his best works.

Chekhov never refused to offer his medical assistance to the peasants. His relationship with the peasants gave Chekhov the means to look into the depths of their lives. As a result of this, Chekhov wrote the famous story called 'The Peasants'.

It appeared that Chekhov's health had worsened still, and that he had to undergo medical treatment for many years. While he underwent medical treatment in Yalta at the southern shore of the Crimea, Chekhov did not abandon his literary work, but he was able to reach a remarkable mastership.

Chekhov did not only write novels and stories, but also plays. The young, newly established Moscow art theatre brought out Chekhov's play called 'The Seagull'. That play made the theatre famous. Chekhov's plays called 'The Three Sisters' and 'The Cherry Orchard' were brought out first on the stage of that theatre.

While Chekhov was living in Yalta, he continuously had meetings with Lev Tolstoi and M. Gorky. All his life, Chekhov had revered Tolstoi as a great writer. Chekhov was interested in the works of the young M. Gorky, and appreciated it greatly.

In the year 1902, the Academy of Sciences elected Maksim Gorky as their honourary member. The tsar did not agree to their election of the proletarian and revolutionary Gorky, whom the police was pursuing. It was reported to Nicolas II with regard to the election.

The tsar wrote the following resolution: 'It is truly outrageous'. And that was sufficient to render the election invalid. Therefore two of the honourary academics, the writers Vladimir Korolenko and Anton Chekhov, opposed to it, and refused the academic titles.

Meanwhile Chekhov's health worsened still every day; on July 2 of the year 1904, Chekhov died.

In his famous writings, Chekhov had aptly ridiculed the insult connected with the habit of exploiting and being exploited and the humiliating conitions during the period of the regime of the tsarist government, and he had brought forward his ultimate wish for an enlightened time, and the happiness of mankind. Faith in mankind, and the struggle for its welbeing, are the main qualities of the writer Chekhov.

Source

Krueger, J. R. Tuvan Manual. Bloomington: 1977. 167-168.