B

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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit

BA

  • baalïk saddle shaped mountain.
  • baalïŋ enamel. [LM palang ←Ch]
  • baar liver; baar aarïï liver disease; baar ehdi diaphragm; baarï ažï- to be very upset; baarïnïŋ ödü bolgan dearly loved. [<CT *bagïr]
  • baarï frontside; dag baarï the front of a mountain; tayganïŋ baarïnda in the front part of the tayga; meeŋ baarïmda in front of me.
  • baarlïg having a liver (as the seat of the emotions); kara-baarlïg hard-hearted; sook-baarlïg cold-hearted; čïlïg baarlïg warm-hearted, kind. [<CT *bagïrlïg]
  • baartak counter.
  • baartïk apron. (←Rus fartuk ←Pol ←Ger Vortuch)
  • baarzïk cf. kara-baarzïk thrush, starling.
  • baarzïk pancreas gland. [<CT *bagïrsok]
  • baažï(zï) simulation, pretence; cunning, slyness, guile, craft; ruse; hint (to the answer of a riddle). [cf. LM bači]
  • bačïda- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fusss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself; to become more ill; aarïg kiži bačïdap tur the patient’s condition worsened.
  • bačïdaaškïn serious condition, crisis.
  • bačïm urgent, pressing; hasty, hurried; bustling, given to fussing; strained, tense, difficult; sultry; confusion, turmoil, bustle; bačïm ažïl urgent work; bačïm čoruk urgent journey; bačïm üye difficult time. [LM bačim]
  • bačïmna- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fuss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself. [cf. LM bačïmda-]
  • bačït sin, evil. [LM barčit ←LT]
  • badïla- [bahdïla] to vote; to approve, to confirm, to affirm; to register. [LM batula-]
  • badïlaaškïn [bahdïlaaškïn] vote; approval, confirmation; registration.
  • badïlal vote; approval, confirmation; (marriage) registration.
  • badïlaš- to vote together; to approve or confirm together; to register one’s marriage.
  • badïlažïïškïn (marriage) registration, marriage ceremony, wedding.
  • badïr- to bring down, to lower; to reduce; to degrade; to float; to perform a song; (of children) to cry; xuuŋnu kudukče badïr- to lower the pail in the well; sug badïr- to drain off water; örtek badïr- to lower the price; kudu badïr- to send down from the mountain into the valley, or downstream; badïrïvït če! come on, sing! [<CT *batur-]
  • badïrtïr- to let bring down, lower, reduce, degrade, float, sing.
  • badïtka- [bahdïtka-] to confirm. [LM batudqa-]
  • badïtkal confirmation, proof.
  • bag strap, thong, belt; lasso; tie, leash, tether; bag kur leather strap, leather belt; bagda on the leash, tether. [<CT *ba:g]
  • bagana column, pillar, post, pole. [LM baγana]
  • bagay [bahgay] bad, ugly; not sufficient, not satisfying; poor; bagay xeme bad boat; bagay ažïl unsatisfactory work; bagay agaar bad weather.
  • bagay-sogay [bahgay-sohgay] bad, unimportant.
  • bagla- to tie, to bind; snop bagla- to bind sheaves; xoldarïn bagla- to tie one’s hands. [<CT *ba:gla-]
  • baglaaš tie, strap; aht baglaažï horse reins.
  • baglakčï binder (of sheaves).
  • baglan- to tie oneself. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • baglaš- to tie together; to be tied in a knot, (of a knot) to be tightened.
  • baglat- to let tie; to be tied. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • bak [bahk] bad, evil; negligent; unfortunate; weak; bak kiži bad person; bak aažï bad habits; bak čaŋna- to treat badly; bakka sug- to defame, to villify.
  • bak-sok [bahk-sohk] unimportant, rather bad; bak-sok čüveler goods and chattels, belongings.
  • bakïla- [bakkïla-] to throw a glance, to peep in.
  • bakka-sokka hardly, barely.
  • baksïra- to become worse; to grow weak; to wear out, to be used up; agaar baksïraan the weather turned worse.
  • bakta- to scold, to abuse, to criticize, to slander, to discredit, to calumniate.
  • baktaa- [bahktaa-] to form, to be part of, to be a member of; komissiyanïŋ sostavïnga baktaap kir- to become member of the committee. [LM baγta-]
  • baktaaškïn the act of becoming a part or member of.
  • baktaaškïn swearing, bad language, slander, calumny.
  • baktat- to be scolded, slandered, discredited.
  • bala fault; harm, damage; bo seeŋ balaŋ this is your fault! balazï-bile through someone’s fault.
  • bala pestle.
  • bala graphite; that which stains (of metals). [LM bala]
  • bala- to erase, to blot out, to obliterate; to cross out, to strike out. [LM balala-]
  • balaaš eraser, rubber.
  • balalïg causing damage, harmful.
  • balalïg stained, soiled (of metals).
  • balančak small child.
  • balar slime, mire, silt. [cf. Khak balïr]
  • balar former, ex, old. [LM balar]
  • balara- to have aching muscles.
  • balaš- to obliterate one another.
  • balaš- to soil each other, to make each other dirty.
  • balat- to let erase, blot out; to let cross out, to strike out.
  • baldï [bahldï] axe. [<CT *balto, LM balta]
  • baldïr [bahldïr] calf of the leg; money; baldïrï dïŋzïg rich, prosperous, well-to-do. [<CT *baltïr]
  • balïg wound; scab; balïg kiži wounded person. [<CT *ba:lïg]
  • balïgla- to injure, to wound; of a wound to occur. [<NE *balïgla-]
  • balïglaaškïn wound, injury, wounding.
  • balïglat- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïglattïr- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïïrgan- to feel pain (of a wound), to be sensitive to pain.
  • balïk fish; sööktüg balïk ide (carp); balïk tïvïïškïn fishing, the catching of fish; balïk münü fish soup; balïk üzü fish oil; balïk üürgenezi fish roe. [<CT *ba:lïk]
  • balïkčï fisherman. [<CT *ba:lïkčï]
  • balïkta- to fish, to catch fish.
  • balïktïg rich in fish, teeming with fish; balïktïg xöl lake rich in fish. [<CT *ba:lïklïg]
  • bar there is, present; ïndïg dürüm bar there is such a regulation; mende ol nom bar I have that book. [<CT *ba:r]
  • bar [< baar] going; ahttïg ulus bar čïdïr the horsemen moved away. [< *barar]
  • bar- (baar) to go, to go a way, to leave, to part; -(I)p bar- auxiliary verb indicating ‘being in a situation’; -(I)p bar čït- to go to, to go away; men čoruy bardïm I left; aht maŋnap čoruy bargan the horse had run away; közülbeyn bar- to be invisible; kančap bardïŋ? what is the matter with you?; ašakka bar- (of a woman) to marry; bažï-bile bar- to be lacking, missing, lost; baardï s/he went. [<CT *bar-]
  • bar-čok scanty, small, trifle.
  • bar-čoktug scanty, small, trifle.
  • bara fish-trap. [cf. Khak para]
  • baraan goods, stuff, ware, merchandise. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraan outline, contours, silhouette; baraan bol- to serve; čonunga baaraan bol- to serve the people. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraanna- to go to buy goods.
  • baraanna- to watch, to observe.
  • baraban drum. [←Rus baraban]
  • baraskan poor person, pauper; inhabitant.
  • barba bag of goat leather.
  • bardam impudent, coarse; arrogant, conceited, presumptious; irascible. [LM bardam]
  • bardamna- to be arrogant, conceited; to boast of one’s strength (in games, wrestling). [LM bardamna-]
  • barï presence, availability, on hand, cash; akšanïŋ barï cash money; erge-žok čugula baydaldarnïŋ barï the presence of indispensable conditions.
  • barïïn western; right-winged (politics). [LM baraγun]
  • barïk almost. [LM baruγ]
  • barïmdaa base, basis; reason, grounds, cause; proof, argument; evidence, certificate; kandïg-daa barïmdaa čokka without any reason; barïmdaaï čül? on what grounds?; škola dooskanïnïŋ barïmdaazï a certificate of having completed school. [LM barimta]
  • barïmdaala- to be based or founded on; to observe, to keep to, to take into account, to stick to; dürümnü barïmdaala- to observe the rules. [LM barimtala-]
  • bas- [bahs-] to press; to suppress, to repress; to destroy, to obliterate; to tread, to step; to amble; to pull or press the trigger, to shoot; kattïŋ suun sï bas- to squeeze out the juice of berries; demdek bas- to stamp, to brand; bazar aht ambler; bazar čüve pistol. [<CT *bas-]
  • baska hammer.
  • baskaktan- [bahskaktan-] to sit cross-legged.
  • baskïïš step, footstep; pedal; key; metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baskïlaš- to be heaped or piled up, to be loaded with.
  • baskïlaštïr- to heap up, to pile, to load with.
  • bastïg-: xaram bastïg- to have a nightmare.
  • bastïr- to oppress, to lower; to abuse; to be oppressed; to thresh (grain); to step; to amble. [<CT *bastur-]
  • baš [bahš] head; top, summit; end, tip; ear (of grain); head (counter for livestock); beginning, origin, source; -NIŋ bažïnda on top of, at the head of; bažïndan from the beginning; sigen bažï ear of grass; dag bažï mountain top; xem bažï the upstream part of a river; baš teyi crown of the head; baš söögü skull; baš šüürü comb; baš muŋgaš dead end, situation with no way out. [<CT *baš]
  • baš-tenider puzzle, conundrum.
  • baška [bahška] besides, except for; senden baška except for you; boordan baška except for its being. [<CT *baška]
  • baškala- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškalaaškïn separation, isolation, section division.
  • baškalan- to get rid of, to shake off, to throw off.
  • baškalančak separate, isolated from.
  • baškalandïr- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškar- [bahškar-] to manage, to regulate, to put right; to equip, to fit out (for a journey); to steer; kudumču šimčeeškinin baškar- to regulate the trafic; korabldi baškar- to steer the ship. [<CT *baškar-]
  • baškarïkčï manager; leader.
  • baškart- to let manage, regulate, equip, steer.
  • baškï [bahškï] teacher. [<CT *baxšï, cf. LM baγsi ←Ch]
  • baškï first; front-, anterior; initial.
  • baškïla- to teach, to educate.
  • baškïlaaškïn education.
  • bašta- to lead, to direct, to govern, to be at the head of, to guide; baštaar organnar authorities; baštaar čer government. [<CT *bašla-]
  • baštak [bahštak] witty, humerous, comic; joke, humour; joker, jester. [<CT *baštak]
  • baštaktan- to make jokes, to tease.
  • baštaktanïš- to tell jokes to one another.
  • baštal- to be in the ear, to form ears (of grass).
  • baštalga guidance, leadership.
  • baštaŋgï [bahštaŋgï] bridal veil.
  • baštat- to entrust the leadership.
  • baštay for the first time; eŋ-ne baštaygï very first, initial.
  • baštïg with a head, headed; with a leader; wise. [<CT *bašlïg]
  • baštïŋ [bahštïŋ] leader, head; the leader (in a herd); aymaktïŋ baštïŋï leader of the clan.
  • baštïŋčï leader, chief; ažïlčï čonnuŋ baštïŋčïzï leader of the working people; klass baštïŋčï baškïzï class teacher.
  • bat- [baht-] to go down, to descend, to plunge, to sink, to flow; kudu bat- to walk downstream. [<CT *bat-]
  • bay rich; a rich person; čuduruk bay rich farmer (cf. Rus kulak). [<CT *ba:y]
  • bayaatan (~ bayat) rich person.
  • baybaŋ garrulous, talkative; talkativeness, garrulity; unduly familiar (behaviour).
  • baydal position, status, state, condition, circumstance, situation. [LM bayidal]
  • baydaldïg situated, located, being in a position; berge baydaldïg being in a difficult position; eki baydaldïg being in a good position.
  • bayï- to be or become rich. [<CT *ba:yu-]
  • bayïïrga- to take pride in one’s wealth, to boast. [LM bayarqa-]
  • bayïr festivity; greeting, welcome; bayïr čedir- to welcome, to greet, to congratulate. [LM bayar]
  • bayïrla- to celebrate; to greet. [LM bayarla-]
  • bayïrlal holiday, festivity. [LM bayarlal]
  • bayïrlïg festive, ceremonial; greeting, welcoming; goodbye; bayïrlïg xural ceremonial meeting; bayïrlïg telegramma welcoming telegram; bayïrlïg ešter! goodbye, friends! [cf. LM bayartai]
  • bayïsaa- (~ baysaa-) to interrogate, to question. [LM baičaγa-]
  • bayïsaakčï (~ baysaakčï) investigator. [LM baičaγaγči]
  • bayïsaalga (~ baysaalga) interrogation, examination. [LM baičağalğa]
  • bayïsaat- to be interrogated.
  • bayït- to make rich. [<CT *ba:yut-]
  • bayla- to come to an end, to become empty (of a glass).
  • baylak rich; richness, wealth; resources, treasures; baylak čurt rich land; boydus baylaktarï natural resources; materialdïg baylaktar material resources; ištiki baylaktarnï mobilizastaarï mobilisation of internal resources; kazïmal baylaktar useful resources.
  • baylaŋ fry, young fish.
  • baytïk not only. [cf. LM baituγai]
  • bayza boundary post.
  • baza [bahza] and, still, more, yet, another, already; saazïn baza karandaš paper and pencil; baza bir kiži keldi another person came; meŋee baza nomdan bir ber give me yet another book. [LM basa]
  • bazïm [bahzïm] step.
  • bazïmča [bahzïmča] insult, abuse. [LM basumji]
  • bazïmčala- [bahzïmčala-] to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to abuse; to mock, to jeer at; to consider weak, feeble; ol meni bazïmčalaaš šïdïraaga utturupkan s/he beat me at chess and considered me weak.
  • bazïn- (bastïr) to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to mock, to jeer at. [<CT *basïn-]
  • bazïr- to press. [<CT *basur-]
  • bazïtkïïš metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baža brother-in-law (wife’s sister’s husband). [<CT *ba:ča]
  • bažalaš- to be or become brothers-in-law.
  • bažalïškïlar (~ bažaškïlar) brothers-in-law (husbands of sisters).
  • bažï-kurlug index finger (in games).
  • bažïŋ house, log hut, building; prison, jail; škola bažïŋï school building; bažïŋ adrezi home address; bažïŋ xerekselderi household utensils; bažïŋga kir- to go to prison; bažïŋ kižizi prisoner, inmate. [LM baising]
  • bažïŋna- to be in prison, to be locked up in jail.
  • bažïŋnan- to own a house, building.
  • bažïŋnat- to get locked up in prison.

BE

  • be mare. [<CT *be:]
  • be question particle.
  • bedi- to become high, to rise, to be raised. [<CT *bedü-]
  • bedik high, tall; height, mountain; bedik dag high mountain; bedik kiži tall person; bedik ün high voice. [<CT *bedik]
  • bedit- to raise, to heighten, to lift; sugnuŋ deŋnelin bedit- to raise the water level. [<CT *bedüt-]
  • beer hither, here; since; beer kel come here; nomnarnï beer ekkel bring the books here; ïŋay-beer thither and hither; ol üyden beer since that time; oon beer since then; dagnïŋ beer iyi the slope on this side of the mountain. [<CT *be:rü]
  • beergi since; šagdan beergi, ür üyeden beergi long time since; čooktan beergi recently.
  • beerle- to approach, to come near (to the speaker).
  • beerlet- to draw near.
  • beg beg (historical title); father-in-law; husband’s elder brother. [<CT *beg]
  • bege [behke] Indian ink. [LM beke ←Ch]
  • bege [behke] blight, smut (a crop disease).
  • begele- (of cereals) to be affected by blight, smut.
  • bek [behk] strong; chains, fetters. [<CT *bek]
  • bekte- to consolidate, to strengthen, to fasten. [<CT *bekle-]
  • bekteg oppression.
  • bektel (~ bektelge) fetters; yoke, oppression; captivity; kolonialdïg bektel colonial yoke.
  • bekten- to hold on to, to press oneself against, to strengthen. [<CT *beklen-]
  • bektet- to let consolidate, strengthen, fasten. [<CT *beklet-]
  • bel waist; slope (at the foot of a mountain). [<CT *be:l]
  • bel salmon-trout. [<NE *bel]
  • bel-keš (~ bel-kežik) lower part of the body.
  • belde- to go past the mountain slope.
  • belde- to fish for salmon-trout.
  • beldir [behldir] confluence, crossroads, junction; knot; xem beldiri confluence of rivers; oruk beldirinde at the crossroads. [<CT *beltir]
  • beldirleš- (of rivers or roads) to come together, to join, to form a confluence, junction.
  • belek gift, present; belekke ber- to give as a present. [LM beleg]
  • belen easy; ready. [LM belen]
  • belen-selen that easily; ol belen-selen utpas s/he won’t forget so easily. [LM belen-ĵelen]
  • beleŋgiš mountain terrace.
  • beletke- to prepare; to acquire, to purchase; bažïŋnï kïška udur beletke- to prepare the house for winter. [LM beledke-]
  • beletkel purveyence, procurement; preparation, acquirement; beletkel punktuzu purveying centre, procurement station. [LM beledkel]
  • beletken- to prepare oneself.
  • beliŋči afraid, scared. [<CT *beliŋči]
  • beliŋne- to run up to, to jump; to give a start; to give a shriek. [<CT *beliŋle-]
  • beliŋnet- to make afraid, to scare.
  • ber- (beer) to give; bo nomnu meŋee ber give me this book; sös ber- to give one’s word; čöpšeerel ber- to give permission; üleger ber- to give an example; -A/-I/-y ber- (inchoative auxiliary); bižiy berdim I started writing; -(I)p ber- (benefactive auxiliary); meŋee adïŋ čugaalap ber tell me your name; beeriniiŋ padeži dative case. [<CT *be:r-]
  • berdin- to give oneself up, to surrender; to be given.
  • berdingen true, loyal, devoted.
  • berdir- to transfer to, to hand down, to forward, to let give; čagaanï akïmdan berdirdim I forwarded the writing through my elder brother. [<CT *be:rdür-]
  • berge [behrge] heavy, difficult; hardship, trouble. [LM berke]
  • bergede- to be in difficulties, to find difficulty in; to become difficult, hard, complicated. [LM berked-]
  • bergedet- to make difficult, hard, complicated.
  • berimče blessing, boon; donation.
  • berimčelig beneficial, abundant; generous, liberal; berimčelig čay a lavish summer.
  • beriš- to touch; to bother; to tease; bo nomnar-bile berišpeŋer don’t you touch these books; ït-bile berišpe don’t tease the dog. [<CT *beriš-]
  • bert [behrt] (a place) difficult to pass. [<CT *berk]
  • bert- [behrt-] to mutilate, to cripple, to maim. [<CT *bert-]
  • berten this morning. [< bo erten]
  • bertik mutilation, maiming; dislocation (of a joint); break, fracture (of a limb).
  • berttin- to be maimed, injured. [<CT *bertin-]
  • berttindir- to maim.
  • bes a species of edible bulb (Erythronium). [<NE *bes]
  • bes gland; čaraa bezi salivary gland [<CT *be:z]
  • bestig-baarzïk pancreas.
  • beš five; beški fifth. [<CT *be:š]
  • beš-adar rifle.
  • beti [behti] this side; front, before; xem betinde at this side of the river; betinge near, on this side of; šuugaar betinde as concerns gossip, with respect to gossip. [Tofa beht]
  • bezerek insufficient, inadequate; premature, born prematurely; defective; bezerek kïl- to do inadequately, to leave uncompleted. [LM besereg]
  • bezin even, yet; ol bezin kelbeen-dir s/he has not come yet. [Tofa bezin]
  • beželee(n) five together, the five of, fivesome.
  • bežen fifty; bežengi fiftieth. [<NE *beš + *on]
  • bežennig being fifty years of age.

BI

  • biče small, little, petty; youngest, junior; biče setkil modesty; biče setkildig modest; biče oglu his/her youngest son; biče leytenant junior lieutenant; biče buržuaziya petty bourgoisie; biče öreelge orun sal put the bed in the small room.
  • biče-böövey little finger.
  • biče-salaa little finger.
  • biče-šöömey little finger.
  • bičežek small, insignificant (e.g. of size).
  • bičele- to become little or small, to lessen, to decrease, to diminish.
  • bičelet- to make little or small, to lessen, to decrease, to reduce; to belittle, to depreciate.
  • bičii small, little; a little, a bit, a trifle, slightly; bičii ool small boy; bičii ïnay quite small, insignificant; bičii balïk small fish.
  • bii-sarïg a species of songbird.
  • biiže whetting stone.
  • bil- to know, to get to know; to be aware of, to recognize; to understand; to know to, to know how, to be able to; ïlap bil- to know exactly; utkazïn bil- to know or understand the meaning of it; nomčup bil- to be able to read; bilbes men I don’t know, I don’t know how. [<CT *bil-]
  • bilbeečeŋne- to pretend not to know, to feign ignorance.
  • bildi knowledge; magical powers.
  • bildilig knowledgeable; possessing magical powers.
  • bildin- to be evident, visible, noticeable, to appear.
  • bildinček well-known, generally known; clear, comprehensible.
  • bildingir understandable, comprehensible, clear; söstüŋ utkazï bildingir the meaning of the word is clear.
  • bildinmes unknown, unclear, not understood; ooŋ kažan keliri bildinmes it is unknown when s/he will come.
  • bildir- to let know, to make known, to inform, to notify, to report. [<CT *bildür-]
  • bildirt- to let know, to make known, to inform, to notify, to report.
  • bile and, together with; by means of; (adverbaliser: noun + pos3 + bile); olčaanï-bile in the same way, likewise; üzüü-bile chunk-wise; büzürediri-bile convincingly; kiddingly. [<CT *bi:rle]
  • bilek wrist. [<CT *bilek]
  • bilek as soon as; xün üneri bilek, bis ažïlday bergen we started working as soon as the sun rose.
  • bilekte- to take by the wrist.
  • bilekteeš bracelet. [Khak pĭlektes]
  • bilig knowledge; idea, notion, conception; education; xanï bilig profound knowledge; bilig – küš knowledge is power. [<CT *bilig]
  • biliglig educated, learned, erudite. [<CT *biliglig]
  • bilikse- to want to know. [<CT *bilikse-]
  • bilin- (minnir) to feel, to have the sensation of, to sense, to be aware; to come to one’s senses; to recognise, to admit, to own up to. [<CT *bilin-]
  • bilindir- to persuade, to convince; to make aware; to bring to one’s senses; to subdue. [<CT *bilin-]
  • bilindirig persuasion.
  • bilindiriiškin persuasion.
  • bilinmeste- to lose consciousness; to lose sensitivity, to become numb; xolum bilinmestey berdi my hand grew numb.
  • biliš- (bilčir) to understand each other. [<CT *biliš-]
  • bilzek ring. [<CT *bilezük]
  • bir one; once; bir dugaar first; bir katap once; bir kiži someone; bir čüve something; bir čerde someplace, somewhere, at a certain place; bir šagda once, at a certain time; bir xün one day; bir-le some; any; a certain; a bit, a time; bir-le čer someplace; bir-le kör- to look a bit, to throw a glance; bir eves if; birgi first. [<CT *bi:r]
  • birde sometimes, at times; birde čahs-daa čaar, birde xar-daa čaap keer at times it rains, at times it snows. [Khak pĭrde]
  • birde-birde now ... now, sometimes ... sometimes, at one moment ... at another.
  • biree one, single; any; bireezi one of; bireede at first; bireezinden ïrakta far from any of them. [<CT *bi:regü]
  • birik- to unite, to come together; to go on well. [<CT *bi:rik-]
  • biriktir- to unite, to bring together.
  • bis the sharp or point (of a knife, needle); knife; bižek bizi the sharp of a knife; ine bizi the point of a needle. [<CT *bi:z]
  • bis [bihs] we; bisti us; bistiŋ our; biske to us; biste at us; bisten from us; bisče towards us; bistive towards us; bistii ours; bistii-bile according to us. [<CT *biz]
  • bistig sharp, cutting.
  • biyee far, past; the same, the very one; biyee šagda in the past; biyee artist that same artist; biyeede in the past; biyeegi the aforementioned. [<CT *baya]
  • biyeek long ago.
  • biyir brush (for paint, glue, etc). [LM bir ←Ch]
  • bize- to whet, sharpen; karandaš bize- to sharpen a pencil; xiree bize- to sharpen a saw. [Khak pĭze-]
  • bizeŋ mountain crest.
  • bizet- to let whet, sharpen.
  • bizirer- to huddle together, to gather in one place, to concentrate, to flock, to cluster.
  • bizirt crowded, dense, congested; much, in bulk, a lot of; xovuda mal bizirt there is much livstock in the steppes.
  • bižeeči clerk. [LM bičigeči]
  • bižek [bihžek] knife; bižek sïvï the haft of a knife. [<CT *bi:ček]
  • bižekte- to cut or stab with a knife.
  • bižekten- to cut or stab oneself with a knife.
  • biži- [bihži-] to write; čagaa biži- to write a leter; šülük biži- to write poetry. [LM biči-]
  • bižigle- to write a letter. [LM bičigle-]
  • bižiirge- to feel shy, timid, bashful, embarrassed; to be confused.
  • bižiirgeečel shy, timid, bashful, diffident; unsociable.
  • bižiirget- to confuse, to embarrass.
  • bižiiškin a writing, a sign.
  • bižik [bihžik] writing, a piece of writing, letter; tïva bižik Tuvan writing; bižik bilbes oruk illiteracy. [LM bičig]
  • bižiktig written, having a writing.
  • bižimel (hand)writing, handwritten. [LM bičimel]
  • bižiš- to write to each other, to correspond.
  • bižit- to let write.

  • bïdaa groats; soup (from groats); porridge; ak bïdaa rice; milk soup; milk porridge. [LM budaγa(n)]
  • bïdaala- to eat soup; to add to the soup (as an ingredient). [LM budaγala-]
  • bïdara- [bïhdara-] to disperse, to dissipate, to get scattered; čük bïdara- to get scattered in all directions (e.g. of livestock). [LM butara-]
  • bïdarat- to disperse, to dissipate, to scatter.
  • bïdargay [bïhdargay] dispersed, scattered, dissipated, sparse. [LM butarqai]
  • bïdï- to be or become lice-ridden.
  • bïgïn [bïhgïn] side, edge (lower part); flank, groin; bïktï ts side. [<CT *bïkïn]
  • bïgïnna- [bïhgïnna-] to snap to the side (with the teeth) (e.g. of a horse when tightening the saddle girth); to find fault with, to pick on, to nag at.
  • bïktïš narrow, tight, crowded, cramped, packed.
  • bïktïža- to be narrow, tight, crowded, cramped, packed.
  • bïlaa- to take away by force. [LM buliya-]
  • bïlaaš argument, dispute, lawsuit.
  • bïlaaš- to try to capture, to take away from each other by force; murnun bïlaaš- to try to outstrip one another.
  • bïlaaštïg arguable, disputable; bïlaaštïg xerek disputable matter.
  • bïlaat kerchief. [←Rus plat]
  • bïlaat- to let take away by force.
  • bïlaattïr- to let take away by force.
  • bïlča- [bïhlča-] to smear, to soil, to stain, to dirty. [LM bilča-]
  • bïlčak [bïhlčak] dirty, soiled, stained; blot, smudge; daub. [<CT *balčïk]
  • bïlčakta- to smear, to soil, to stain, to dirty; to write illegibly.
  • bïlčaktaš- to smear, soil, stain, dirty one another.
  • bïlčaš- to smear, soil, stain, dirty one another.
  • bïlčat- to let smear, soil, stain, dirty.
  • bïlda [bïhlda] fuse (for igniting an explosive). [LM bilta]
  • bïlda- to evade, to avoid, to shun, to shirk, to dodge; to cover one’s tracks; (of a bullet) to miss, to be beside the mark; (of a horse) to shy. [LM bulta-]
  • bïldaačal evasive (in answering), dodgy.
  • bïldaaškïn evasion; bïldaaškïn čokka xarïïla- to answer without evasion.
  • bïldala- to ignite with a fuse.
  • bïldalïg having a fuse; bïldalïg boo gun having a fuse.
  • bïldamïk evasive, dodgy.
  • bïldamïkta- to evade, to avoid, to shun, to shirk, to dodge.
  • bïldamïš evasive, dodgy.
  • bïldat- to let evade, avoid.
  • bïlga- to wave; to stir, to agitate; to outwit; xol bïlga- to wave the hand. [<CT *bulga-]
  • bïlga- to smear, to daub; to rinse, to wash by moving something to and fro through the water. [LM bulqa-]
  • bïlgaaš mixer, stirring rod (for stirring grain when roasting it).
  • bïlgamïk inclined to muddling up.
  • bïlgamïkta- to delude, to mislead, to muddling up; to evade, to avoid, to shun, to shirk, to dodge.
  • bïlgaš- to help wave, stir, agitate.
  • bïlgat- to let wave, stir, agitate.
  • bïlgï snorting (of a horse).
  • bïlgïr- [bïhlgïr-] to snort (of horses).
  • bïlgïrt- to let snort.
  • bïra lever (for lifting heavy objects), support; bïra ïyažï supporting beam.
  • bïra species of grey steppe partridge.
  • bïra the first ice at the banks on a river, sludge ice.
  • bïraat Buryat. [LM buriyad]
  • bïrala- to lever something up.
  • bïralaš- to help lever something up.
  • bïralat- to let lever something up.
  • bïragda- to become covered with ice, to freeze over, (of a river) to freeze at the banks.
  • bïraš- to match, to be equal, to not be inferior (in power, skill); to cope with, to manage, to handle.
  • bïrdaan Berdan rifle. [←Rus berdanka]
  • bïrïstaa verst. [←Rus versta]
  • bïrïš- (of clothes) to wrinkle, to cockle up.[<CT *bürüš-]
  • bïrïškak wrinkle, crease; in wrinkles, creased; warped.
  • bïrïštïr- to wrinkle (the face), to make a wry face; to crease (material, paper).
  • bïrïžaŋna- to twitch, to grimace, to make faces.
  • bïrïžaŋnat- to let twitch, grimace, make faces.
  • bïrlagar covered with a surge (of waves); wavy.
  • bïrlaŋ ripple(s), surge (of waves).
  • bïrlaŋayïn- to ripple, to be covered by a surge (of waves); xöl bïrlaŋaynïp čïtkan the lake was covered by surges of waves.
  • bïrlaŋna- to ripple, to be covered by a surge (of waves).
  • bïrlaŋnaaš ripple(s), surge (of waves).
  • bïrlaŋnat- to cause to ripple, to cause to be covered by a surge (of waves); xat sugnu *bïrlaŋnadïp tur the wind caused the water to ripple.
  • bïrtak [bïhrtak] mucus, slime; weed.
  • bïrtaktal- to be overgrown by weed.
  • bïrtaktïg mucous, slimy.
  • bïržï [bïhržï] scratch, trace of a wound.
  • bïskan [bïhskan] powder snow, soft snow; bïskan xar newly fallen snow.
  • bïskanna- of powder snow to fall, of snow to freshly fall; oruktu xar bïskannapkan snow has freshly fallen on the road.
  • bïskannïg covered with powder snow.
  • bïstan piston, percussion cap. [←Rus piston]
  • bïstannïg having a piston, percussion cap.
  • bïš- [bïhš-] to cut, to cut out; xep bïžarï the act of cutting out. [<CT *bïč-]
  • bïš- to churn (butter), to mix, to whisk, to whip (e.g. sour milk during the preparation of kumys). [< CT *bïš-]
  • bïš- [bïhš-] to become ripe, mature, to ripen, to mature (of berries, grain); to boil, to cook (of water or food). [<CT *bïš-]
  • bïškak [bïhškak] animal skin with the paws. [Khak pïsxax]
  • bïškï spaddle for skimming the milk; spaddle for cutting the hardened cheese in squares or rounds, churn staff; piston. [<CT *bïšku]
  • bïškïïš spaddle for cutting the hardened cheese in squares or rounds, churn staff.
  • bïškïr- to sneeze. [Khak pïsxïr-]
  • bïškïrïš- to sneeze several times.
  • bïštak cheese (from sheep’s milk).
  • bïštakta- to make cheese (from sheep’s milk).
  • bïštaktal- (of milk) to turn to cheese.
  • bïštïr- [bïhš-] to let cut, to let cut out. [<CT *bïčtur-]
  • bït [bïht] louse. [<CT *bït]
  • bïtta- to remove the lice; to do with great care, to do thoroughly.
  • bïttïg infested with lice.
  • bïyirgïn light rash on the skin; scattered (of a rash, freckles); small, fine; bïyïrgïn činčiler small beads.
  • bïyirgïnna- to be covered with a rash.
  • bïza- [bïhza-] to strew with, to powder with.
  • bïzaa one-year-old calf; mïygak bïzaazï fawn of the maral deer; sarlïk bïzaa yak calf; bïzaa ažaakčïzï, bïzaa kažaazï calf-shed. [<CT *buzagu]
  • bïzaala- to calve; to drive up the calves. [<CT *buzagula-]
  • bïzaalaaškïn calving.
  • bïzaalïg having a calf; bïzaalïg inek cow having a calf.
  • bïzaančï [bïhzaančï] Tuvan spike fiddle.
  • bïzaančïla- to play the spike fiddle.
  • bïzam a pinch of (usually said of products like flour and groats for seasoning broth).
  • bïzaŋ carpenter; joiner. [LM muĵan ←Ch]
  • bïzaŋčï carpenter; joiner.
  • bïzaŋčïla- to work as a carpenter, joiner.
  • bïzaŋna- to work as a carpenter, joiner.
  • bïžar [bïhžar] measles.
  • bïžar-dumaa [bïhžar-dumaa] smallpox.
  • bïžï- [bïhžï-] to become strong, firm, to consolidate.
  • bïžïg strong, stiff, hard, firm, solid; bïžïg ïyaš hard wood; bïžïg pös strong fabric; bïžïg taybïŋ stable peace; bïžïg biligler sound knowledge; bïžïg soruk strong will; bïžïg soruktug strong willed. [<CT *bïšïg]
  • bïžïgla- to strengthen, to consolidate, to secure, to fasten, to fix; algan biliglerni bïžïgla- to commit to memory what one has learned.
  • bïžïglaaškïn strengthening, consolidation; šöl bïžïglaaškïn (military) securing of the terrain.
  • bïžïglakčï fixing agent, fixer.
  • bïžïglal strengthening, consolidation, securing, fastening, fixing.
  • bïžïglan- to firmly hold oneself on to.
  • bïžïglanïïškïn strengthening, consolidation.
  • bïžïglaš- to help strengthen, consolidate, secure, fasten, to strengthen together.
  • bïžïk- [bïhžïk-] to become strong, firm, to consolidate; Sovyet Evileliniŋ bügü-delegey baydalï ulam-na bïžïga bergen the international position of the Sovet Union has become stronger.
  • bïžïkčï tailor’s cutter.
  • bïžïkčïla- to cut with a tailor’s cutter.
  • bïžïktïr- to strengthen, to consolidate; küš-ažïlčïdïŋ sagïlga-čurumnu bïžïktïr- to strengthen the working discipline.
  • bïžïlgak [bïhžïlgak] nappy rash.
  • bïžïlgan [bïhžïlgan] nappy rash. [<CT *bïčïlgan]
  • bïžïlganna- (of babies) to suffer from nappy rash.
  • bïžïn- (bïštïr) (of babies) to suffer from nappy rash. [cf. CT *bïčïl-]
  • bïžïndï a piece cut off.
  • bïžïr- to bake, to broil, to roast; to work thoroughly through the end; xuužuur bïžïr- to bake pancakes; xleb bïžïr- to bake bread; eht bïžïr- to roast meat; iletkeldi bïžïrïp al- to work thoroughly through the lecture. [<CT *bïšur-]
  • bïžïrïkčïzï: xleb bïžïrïkčïzï baker.
  • bïžïrïmčalïg [bïhžïrïmčalïg] detailed, thorough; šuptuzun bïžïrïmčalïg boda- to think everything over in detail.
  • bïžïrïmčïlïg detailed, thorough.
  • bïžïrïš- to help bake, broil, roast.
  • bïžïrt- to let cook, bake, broil, roast. [<CT *bïšurt-]
  • bïžït- to make stronger, to strengthen, to consolidate; Sovyet Evileliniŋ küčüzün bïžït- to consolidate the power of the Sovet Union.

BO

  • bo this; bo-la thus, and, often; bolar these; you (polite form plural); bolarlar these; mooŋ of this; monu this; maŋaa (~ maa) to this, hither; mïnda in this, here; moon from this, hence; boduva here, in this direction; bože here, in this direction; moom this thing of mine, this which belongs to me (lit. my this); mooŋ this thing of yours; moozu this thing of his/hers/theirs; moovus this thing of ours; mooŋar this thing of yours; bo doraan immediately; bo mïnčaar and such, and others; bo kiži my spouse; seni bo-la saktïp keer čordum I often reminded you. [<CT *bo:]
  • bočurga bud.
  • boda unit of livestock; chessman, piece (in chess); large (of cattle, grain); mïyïstïg boda mal large horned cattle; boda taraa coarse grain (e.g. wheat in comparison to millet). [LM boda]
  • boda- to think, to consider, to assume; to think of; to solve (a problem); men bodaarïmga in my opinion; bodaarga when considering, when comparing to; düün xünge bodaarga, bögün čïlïg-dïr when comparing yesterday to today, today is warmer; san boda- to solve an arithmetical problem; meni baza bodaŋar think of me, keep me in mind, don’t forget about me. [LM bodu-]
  • bodagan [bohdagan] foal of a camel. [LM botuγa ~ botuγu(n)]
  • bodaganna- of a female camel to foal.
  • bodagïla- to think over and over.
  • bodal thought; idea; opinion; čaa bodal new idea; bažïmga oon aytïrar-dïr dep bodal kire xonup keldi the thought came to my head to ask him about this; meeŋ bodalïm mïndïg such is my opinion. [LM bodul]
  • bodalčï thinker.
  • bodaldïg with the thought, idea, intention of; intelligent; öörenir bodaldïg keldim I came with the intention to learn.
  • bodalga (arithmetical) task, problem; čiik bodalga easy task; berge bodalga difficult task; bodalga nomu book of mathematical tasks. [LM bodulγa]
  • bodamča care, caution, prudence; circumspection; thoughtfulness. [LM bodumĵi]
  • bodamčalïg careful, prudent, thoughtful.
  • bodan- to think over, to consider, to ponder, to contemplate, to reflect; to change one’s mind.
  • bodandïr- to let think over, consider; to force someone to change his mind.
  • bodangïr quick-witted, sharp, bright.
  • bodanïïškïn consideration, contemplation, reflection.
  • bodara- to grow, to be propagated, disseminated.
  • bodarat- to raise, to propagate, to disseminate.
  • bodaš- to think, consider, solve together; to worry about one another.
  • bodat- to make or let think, consider; to set to solve (a problem, task).
  • bodattïn- to think over, to consider, to ponder, to contemplate, to reflect; to change one’s mind.
  • bodattïngïr easily solved, light (e.g. of a task).
  • bodattïr- to make or let think, consider; to set to solve (a problem, task).
  • bodavïže certainly, evidently, obviously, must be; bodavïže, ol čedip kelgen obviously, he came.
  • bodu self-, auto-; bodu bižiir xereksel recording instrument; bodu čoruur self-propelled; bodu čoruur kombayn self-propelled combine; bodu öörengen self-taught, self-educated person.
  • bog- (boor) to fasten a noose, to tie a knot; to strangle, to smother, to throttle, to choke; to block up, to dam (a ditch); to slaughter; booy baglan- to wrap (a scarf) around one’s neck; xuragan bog- to slaughter a lamb. [<CT *bog-]
  • bogaa fur scarf, boa. [cf. CT *bukagu]
  • bogaa ring (of a scythe).
  • bogaala- to tie a fur scarf around the neck.
  • bogaalan- to put on a fur scarf, to put on a necktie.
  • bogaalïg having a scarf; bogaalïg bora xartïga white-necked falcon.
  • bogba yearling foal.
  • bogda Buddha, god, saint; holy, sacred; bogda šažïnï Buddhism; aa bogda! oh god! [LM boγda]
  • bogdara god!
  • bogdun- to be tied, to be tightened (e.g. of a bag filled with grain); to be strangled, to be hung; to be blocked up (of a ditch); to be slaughtered (e.g. of a lamb). [cf. CT *boglun-]
  • bogdunčak tied, tied up; bogdunčak xap tied up bag.
  • bogdur- to make fasten, tie, strangle, block up, slaughter. [<CT *bogtur-]
  • bok debris, rubbish, waste, litter, refuse, trash, sweepings, filth; taraa bogu chaff; bok ünüš, bok sigen weeds; bok xaaržaa dustbin. [LM boγ]
  • bokara [bohkara] god!
  • bok-čam debris, rubbish, waste, litter, refuse, trash.
  • bok-sak goods and chattels, belongings; rubbish, waste, litter. [LM boγ-saγ]
  • bok-saktïg having goods and chattels, belongings; covered with rubbish, waste, litter.
  • bokta- to gather one’s belongings; to clean the grain from chaff; to rob.
  • boktal- to be littered up; (of a field) to be overgrown with weeds.
  • boktaldïr- to litter, to scatter rubbish.
  • boktalïïškïn blockage; pollution.
  • boktan- to taste, to get a snack or bite; to beg, to live by begging.
  • boktara [bohktara] god!; aa boktara! oh my god!
  • boktattïn- to taste, to get a snack, bite; to beg, to live by begging.
  • boktug covered with debris, rubbish, waste, litter, refuse; covered with chaff.
  • bol- (bolur ~ boor) to be, to become, to constitute; to happen, to occur, to take place; to be sufficient, fine, will do; bögün ayas xün boldu today was clear day; taraa ažaalgazï bügü čonnuŋ xeree bolur the harvesting of grain is matter of national importance; boop megelen-, boop al- to pretend to be, to feign; aarïg boop al- to pretend to be ill; yozulug kiži bol- to become a genuine human being; dün ortuzu bolgan it had become midnight; čay bolu bergen it had become summer; sook bolu bergen it became cold; xay bolgan-dïr misfortune came about; daarta xural bolur tomorrow there will be a meeting; beš arïnnï nomčuzuŋza bolur reading five pages will do; -(I)p bol- potential auxiliary; bižip bolur s/he is able to write; kirip bolur be? is it allowed to enter?; ažïldap bolur arga the possibility to work; kiržip bolur it is possible to participate; boor probably, likely; ol kelir boor it is likely s/he will come; -daa čüü boor, -daa čüzü boor as for; bolur-bolbas now it is, now it is not; bolur-bolbazï possibility; bolbaan! stop that! leave it!; bolbayn! why not! sure!; bolbayn bargan s/he did not succeed. [<CT *bo:l-]
  • bola- to go this way, to heed for a certain direction.
  • bolaada near at hand, here-about, close by.
  • bolaaga near at hand, here-about, close by.
  • bolat steel, damask steel; bolat bižek steel sword. [LM bolad ←Ir]
  • bolbaazïn developed, perfect, excellent. [LM bolbasun]
  • bolbaazïra- to be developed, improved. [LM bolbasura-]
  • bolbaazïraaškïn improvement, development, progress.
  • bolbaazïrat- to develop, to improve; to progress.
  • bolbaazïradïïškïn development, improvement; progress.
  • bolbaazïral development, improvement, progress. [LM bolbasural]
  • bolbaazïraŋgay developed, improved (e.g. technology, machine-tools). [LM bolbasurangγui]
  • bolbas cannot, ought not, impossible, forbidden; ïnčap bolbas one cannot act like that; taakpïlap bolbas it is forbidden to smoke.
  • bolbas-la usually, often.
  • bolbaspe isn’t it? right?; eki bodanmaska ïndïg bolbaspe that happens when one does not think it over properly, right?
  • bolča- to make an appointment to meet; bolčaan čer meeting point. [LM bolĵa-]
  • bolčag appointment, meeting; fixed term, date; bolčag kïl- to make an appointment to meet; bolčaanda kelbeen at the appointed time s/he had not come. [LM bolĵaγa]
  • bolčaglïg appointed for a meeting, having an appointment; bolčaglïg čerivis the place appointed for our meeting; bolčaglïg ežim the friend whom I have an appointment with; čayïm čok, bir kiži-bile bolčaglïg men I have no time, I have an appointment with someone.
  • bolčaš- to agree on an appointment to meet, to fix a place or term for a meeting.
  • bolčaytïlïg: bolčaytïlïg bora tey elevation for meeting or observing. [cf. LM bolĵuγatai]
  • bolčuksa- to want to defend.
  • bolčukču attorney, lawyer, council for the defence.
  • bolčukčula- to work as an attorney, lawyer.
  • bolčumča hope; possibility, probability.
  • bolčumčalïg reliable, probable, possible.
  • bolčumčok unreliable, fickle (of a person, the weather).
  • boldun- to come to be, to be put in effect, to be realised, fulfilled, to be possible, feasible; boldunarï-bile, boldunar arga-bile as far as possible.
  • boldur- to let or cause be or become, to put in effect, to realise, to make possible; čok boldur- to liquidate, to remove; četpesterni čok boldurar xerek it is necessary to remove the deficiencies; udurtulga boldur-, baštalga boldur-, baštayaga boldur- to be guided; kommunistig partiyalar Marksism-Leninizmniŋ öörediin udurtulga boldurup turar the Communist Parties are guided by the study of Marxism-Leninism.
  • boldurga [bolhldurga] calf or yak calf in the second year.
  • bolgaa- to please, to deign to; boduŋar-la bolgaap körüŋer! suit yourself! [LM bolγuγa-]
  • bolgaamča caution, prudence, consideration. [LM bolγuγamĵi]
  • bolgaamčalïg careful, prudent, considerate.
  • bolgaamčïlal caution, prudence, consideration.
  • bolgaamčïlaldïg careful, prudent, considerate.
  • bolgaamčïlïg careful, prudent, considerate.
  • bolgaamčïlïï caution, prudence, consideration.
  • bolgaan- to be cautious, prudent, considerate; to be pacified, to calm down; bolgaanïp kör! that will do! enough!
  • bolgaandïr- to let be cautious, prudent, considerate; to pacify, to calm down.
  • bolgaattïn- to be cautious, prudent, considerate; to be pacified, to calm down.
  • bolgan being; cf. bol-.
  • bolgan each, every, any; bolgan-na each, every, any; kiži bolgan-na everybody, everyone, anyone; onu kiži bolgan-na bilir everybody knows this; bolganï-la everyone of them; bolgan bolza as for, concerning. [LM bolγan]
  • bolgančok usually, frequently; always, constantly; Kara-ool bibliotekaga bolgančok kičeeldep čedip keer kiži Kara-ool is a person who always goes to the library to study.
  • bolgar Bulgarian; bolgar dïl Bulgarian language; bolgarlar Bulgarians.
  • bolgaš being; therefore, because, since, so as; and; after, in over (a certain period of time); such as … only; düün bolgaš bögün yesterday and today; bir ay bolgaš within one month; ažïl xöy bolgaš teatrga barïp šïdavaan bis because there is a lot of work, we are unable to go to the theatre; siler bolgaš šïdažïr-dïr siler only people like you can do it.
  • bolgay indeed, actually; sen onu bilir-le bolgay sen you do know it.
  • boluksa- to want to be; užudukču boluksaan s/he wanted to be a pilot.
  • boluš- (bolčur) to defend, to intercede for, to plead for, to act as council for the defence.
  • boluštur- to let defend, to let act as council for the defence.
  • boluuškun phenomenon; event; case, incident; boydus boluuškunu, boydustuŋ boluuškunu natural phenomenon; niitilel boluuškunu social phenomenon; ulustar arazïnda boluuškunnar international events; ozal-ondaktïg boluuškun accident; solun boluuškun interesting incident; boluuškun nakloneniyezi indicative mood.
  • bolza if it is, if there is; if only; as for, concerning; xural bolza if there is a meeting; aŋ xöy bolza, aŋnaar men if there is much game, then I will go hunting; čahs čaggan bolza! if only it would rain!; men bolza as for me; arzïlaŋnar, parlar bolgaş börüler bolza araatan amïtannar lions, tigers and wolves – these are predatory animals; bolza bolgay, bolbaza bolbaay here goes; bolza bolur, bolbaza bolbas maybe yes, maybe no; čok bolza or; kïm-daa bolza whoever; kančap-daa bolza however that may be.
  • bolza-daa although, even though, however; küs apargan bolza-daa, ïyaštar am-daa nogaan although autumn has begun, the trees are still green; dün düšken bolza-daa, sïldïstar közülbeyn turgan although night has fallen, the stars were not visible.
  • bolzažok although, even though, however.
  • bolzun let it be, may it be; that’s enough! enough!; bistiŋ ulug töreen čurtuvus čečektelir bolzun! may our great native land flourish!; ïndïg bolzun may it be thus; xoozun čugaalar bolzun! enough of that empty talking!
  • bom precipice of a mountain crest (over a river). [LM boγum]
  • bombala- to bombard, to bomb; bombalaar užar čüül bomber aircraft.
  • bombalaaškïn bombardment, bombing.
  • bombalat- to have bombed; to be bombed.
  • bombalakčï bomber; bombalakčï užar čüül bomber aircraft.
  • bombalattïr- to have bombed.
  • boo gun, rifle; boo unu barrel of a gun; boo budu gun support; boo užazï butt of a gun; boo daažï gun shot; boo-bile boola-, boo-bile at- to shoot with a gun. [LM buu ←Ch]
  • boo-čemzek weapon.
  • boo-čepsegle- to arm with.
  • boo-čepsegleeškin arming.
  • boo-čepseglen- to arm oneself.
  • boo-čepsegleniiškin arming.
  • boo-čepsek weapon; boo-čepsekti düžüreri disarmament.
  • boo-čepsektig having a weapon, armed.
  • boo-moŋgu weapons, weaponry.
  • boodal bundle, batch, package, parcel, bunch; bir boodal čigir a package of sugar; bir boodal karandaš a package of pencils. [LM boγudal]
  • boodalga shooting, firing; boodalga čeri (shooting) range, firing range; boodalga margïldaazï rifle competitions.
  • boogda- to obstruct, to bar, to block someone’s way, to prevent, to hinder to impede.
  • boogdaaškïn obstacle, bar, barrier.
  • boogdakčï obstructing, barring, preventing, impeding.
  • boogdal obstruction, obstacle, bar, barrier.
  • boogdat- to be obstructed, barred, blocked.
  • boogdattïr- to be barred, blocked.
  • book a certain disease.
  • bool- (boglur) (of a knot) to be tied; to choke, to breathe with difficulty; to stop flowing, (of blood) to coagulate; (of a ditch) to become blocked up. [<CT *bogul-]
  • boola- to shoot, to hunt with a gun, rifle; boolap ölür- to fusillade; boolap ölüreri execution by shooting.
  • boolaaškin shot; shooting.
  • boolan- to be shot (down); to shoot oneself.
  • boolaš- to exchange fire, to fire at each other.
  • boolat- to let shoot, to order to shoot; to be under fire; to be shot down.
  • boolattïn- to be shot (down); to shoot oneself.
  • boolattïr- to let shoot, to order to shoot; to be under fire; to be shot down.
  • boolug with a gun, having a gun, armed with a gun.
  • boom precipice of a mountain crest (over a river). [LM boγum]
  • boop-tur all right, okay, fine.
  • boor cf. bog- to strangle, bol- to be, to become.
  • boor-čïlan boa constrictor.
  • booroŋ probably, likely.
  • booroŋna- to amount to nothing but assumptions, to do something on the off-chance.
  • boorzak a dish consisting of meat dumplings wrapped in dough. [LM boγursuγ]
  • boorzakta- to prepare meat dumplings, to go and buy meat dumplings.
  • boos pregnant (animals); phoetus (of animals). [<CT *bogoz, LM boγos]
  • boostaa throat; boostaa aarïï sore throat, quincy; boostaa borbaa Adam’s apple; boostaa ederi hiccup; boostaa sokta- to drink, to have a drink, to toss off.
  • boostaala- to cut the throat, to strangle.
  • boostaalaš- to grasp one another by the throat, to strangle one another.
  • boostaalat- to have one’s throat cut, to be strangled.
  • boostaalïg noisy; loud-voiced; melodious; eki boostaalïg with a good voice.
  • booškun bundle, small package, wad; string; booškun taakpï a wad of tobacco; idik booškunu boot string, shoestring.
  • booškunna- to tie into a bundle (of tobacco, tea).
  • boova pancake, flat cake fried in oil. [LM boubo]
  • boovala- to make pancakes or flat cakes.
  • booza- (of domestic animals) to become pregnant, to be impregnated.
  • boozaaškïn fertilization (of domestic animals).
  • boozadïlga insemination; tarïp boozadïlga artificial insemination of animals.
  • boozat- to inseminate, to impregnate.
  • bopugur spherical, round; thick, chubby (e.g. of a child); bopugur čaaktarlïg (of a child) having round cheeks; bopugur ool kiddy, chubby litle fellow.
  • bopuk soft boots for the smallest children, baby boots.
  • bopuŋna- to move, to stir, to puff out, to pout (of something thick and round, e.g. of the cheeks)
  • bopuŋnat- to move, to make move, stir (of something thick and round, e.g the cheeks).
  • bopuruk cupola (of buildings).
  • bopuy- to become round; to swell, to swell up (e.g. of a swelling, tumour).
  • bopuyt- to let inflate, swell, puff out.
  • bor boron. [←Rus bor]
  • bora grey; bora büdün unimportant, mediocre, grey, poorly. [LM boru]
  • bora- to soil, to smear, to make dirty; to sweep up, to cover up (tracks); to confuse, to mix up with; xar xarda isti borap kaapkan the wind swept tracks in the snow.
  • bora-čïraa wicker, osier.
  • bora-kodan grey hare.
  • bora-tal grey willow, purple willow.
  • bora-toolay grey hare. [LM taulai]
  • bora-xaak wicker, osier.
  • bora-xirilee (~ bora-xirlee) sparrow.
  • bora-xökpeš sparrow.
  • boraačal inclined to muddling up.
  • boraan overcast, rainy, foul weather. [LM boruγa(n)]
  • boraanna- of the weather to become overcast, rainy.
  • boraannïg rainy; boraannïg xün rainy day.
  • boral- to be soiled, smeared; to be swept up, covered (of tracks).
  • borala- to do something in a negligent way, in a hurry, poorly.
  • boralan- to live in poverty, in need, to drag a pitiful existence; to put an end to one’s life.
  • boraldïr greyish, with a grey nuance; boraldïr-ak greyish-white.
  • boralgak whirlpool, maelstrom.
  • boralgakta- (of a whirlpool) to whirl, to turn.
  • boralgaktal- (of a whirlpool) to whirl, to turn.
  • boramïk inclined to muddling up.
  • boraŋ bad weather; dregs; turbid, murky (of liquids); boraŋ sug turbid water.
  • boraŋ-saraŋ unimportant, poor; swill.
  • boraŋna- of the weather to become overcast, rainy; deer boraŋnaaš turup bergen the weather had turned rainy.
  • boraŋnalčak turbid, murky.
  • boraŋnïg rainy.
  • borar- to become grey.
  • borart- to make grey.
  • borasta- to do something in a negligent way, in a hurry, poorly.
  • borastan- to live in poverty, need, to drag a pitiful existence; to put an end to one’s life.
  • borastaš- to do something in a negligent way together.
  • borastat- to let do something in a negligent way.
  • boraš- to be soiled.
  • boraštïr- to soil.
  • borazïmaar greyish.
  • borbaana(y) (~ borbaandï) [bohrbaana(y), bohrbaandï] ball of fur (formed in the stomach of ruminant domestic animals as a result of licking; cattle frequently perish because of this).
  • borbak [bohrbak] circular, spherical, round; lump, piece; only; borbak xar snowball; beš borbak čuurga five eggs; iyi borbak čigir two lumps of sugar; iyi borbak kiži čoraan, iyi-le borbak kiži čorutkan only two people had gone; bop-borbak very round, totally round.
  • borbak-boostaa Adam’s apple.
  • borbak-kulča wild onion, wild chives (Allium, Liliaceae).
  • borbak-sarbak (household) goods, belongings, goods and chattels.
  • borbakta- [bohrbakta-] to roll into a ball or lump; dalgan borbakta- to roll the dough.
  • borbaktal- to be rolled up into a ball lump.
  • borbaktaš- to roll up into a ball or lump; to assume a rounded form.
  • borbaktat- to let roll into a ball or lump.
  • borbaŋayn- [borbaŋayn-] to roll (of a ball or the eyes).
  • borbaŋna- [borbaŋna-] to roll (of a ball or the eyes).
  • borbaŋnat- to roll, to twirl, to twist (in the hands)
  • borbay- [bohrbay-] to be or become round, circular, spherical.
  • borbayt- to make round, to give ball-shaped form; borbaytïr dïgdïnïp algaš after being pressed into a lump, after being rolled into the ball.
  • borbuyak [bohrbuyak] abomasum (fourth stomach of a ruminant).
  • borlančïk yearling mountain goat.
  • borlug containing boron, boric; borlug kislota boric acid.
  • borta [bortta] here, hither.
  • borta-: xïrïn borta- to taste, to nibble, to eat a little.
  • bortuk small mound of earth in front of a marmot’s burrow.
  • bortukta- (of a marmot) to heap up earth in front of its burrow.
  • bortuktal- of a heap of earth to be formed in front of a marmot’s burrow.
  • boruk-sarïk poorly, in an indifferent way.
  • borup-sarïp haphazardly.
  • borzagar [bohrzagar] toothed, jagged, pited, furrowed (of ice, cliffs).
  • borzaŋ [bohrzaŋ] toothed, jagged, pited, furrowed (of ice, cliffs); borzaŋ xayalar jagged cliffs.
  • borzuk [bohrzuk] cf. morzuk badger.
  • boržaa ringworm.
  • boržaalïk ringworm.
  • boržaalïkta- to suffer from ringworm.
  • boržaalïktïg suffering from ringworm.
  • bos drake, wild duck, mallard.
  • bosku [bohsku] throat; boskun kes- to leave without the means of subsistence (lit. to cut one’s throat). [<CT *bogoz + pos3]
  • bosku- [bohsku-] to tie up (a painful arm); to tie a horse’s front legs to its neck (for milking or shoeing).
  • boskug [bohskug] fetters (tying a horse’s front legs to its neck). [<CT *bogsuk]
  • boskuglug [bohskuglug] fettered.
  • boš [bohš] free, loose, untied, empty; unstable, unsteady; čüree boš cowardly, faint-hearted. [<CT *boš]
  • boška [bohška] lowest official, chief of an arban (administrative unit consisting of ten households). [LM bošoγo]
  • bohškurga sparrow. [cf. LM boγsira]
  • bošta- [bohšta-] to free, to empty; kočaldï bošta- to empty a bucket.
  • boštun- [bohštun-] to be or become untied, to become freed from the leash. [<CT *bošlun-]
  • boštunčak [bohštunčak] untied, unfastened, undone.
  • bot self; personal; auto-; unmarried, single; bodum myself; boduŋ yourself: bodu him/herself; boduvus, bottarïvïs ourselves; boduŋar, bottarïŋar yourselves; bottarï themselves; bot dugaytï personally; bot kiži bachelor, single or unmarried man or woman; bot xereežen single woman; aht-daa bot-daa turupkan both the horse and myself got tired; body bütken innate, inborn; bodu dužunda čüve a thing in itself. [<CT *bod]
  • bot-agïm drift, flow.
  • bot-agïïškïn drift, flow.
  • bot-baškartïnïlga self-determination; naciyalarnïŋ bot-baškartïnïlgazïnïŋ ergezi the right of nations to self-determination.
  • bot-bižilge autograph.
  • bot-bodu oneself; own; bot-bottarï they themselves; their own.
  • bot-bozun unmarried, single.
  • bot-büdüš originality.
  • bot-büdüštüg original; bot-büdüštüg uran čüül original art.
  • bot-čuruk self-portrait.
  • bot-deŋzi specific weight; sugnuŋ bot-deŋzizi the specific weight of water.
  • bot-erge independence, autonomy, sovereignty.
  • bot-erge-čagïrga self-government.
  • bot-ergelel self-government.
  • bot-ergelig independent, autonomous, souvereign; bot-ergelig turarï independent existence; bot-ergelig kürüne(ler) independent state(s).
  • bot-idepkey initiative.
  • bot-kamgalal self-defence.
  • bot-kižizidilge self-education.
  • bot-mederel (self)-consciousness; aŋgïnïŋ bot-medereli class consciousness.
  • bot-namdar autobiography.
  • bot-orulga-čarïlga self-financing.
  • bot-orulga-čarïlgalïg self-financed; bot-orulga-čarïlgalïg büdürülge čeri self-financed enterprise.
  • bot-önčü personal property.
  • bot-ööredilge independent study, self-education.
  • bot örtek prime cost, cost-price; baraannarnïŋ bot örteen čiiget- to reduce the cost-price of goods.
  • bot-sorulga an end in itself.
  • bot-šiitpirlel self-determination; naciyalarnïŋ bot-šiitpirleliniŋ ergezi the right of nations to self-determination.
  • bot-šïnar property; materiyanïŋ bot-šïnarï material property.
  • bot-šügümčülel self-criticism; šügümčülel bolgaš bot šügümčülel criticism or self-criticism; bot-šügümčüleldi kalbart- to develop self-criticism.
  • bot-šügümčüleldig self-critical.
  • bot-tïvïngïr amateur-; bot-tïvïngïr kompozitor amateur composer; bot-tïvïngïr uran čüül amateur art.
  • bot-ündürüg voluntary rate-paying.
  • bot-üne prime cost, cost price; produkciyanïŋ bot-ünezin čiiget- to reduce the cost price of production.
  • bot-ünelel self-appraisal.
  • bot-xögžülde self-development
  • botkur large, stalwart (of animals); botkur bïzaa tall calf.
  • bottan- to come into being, to happen, to be realised; (of an embryo) to be conceived.
  • bottandïr- to let come into being, to make happen, to realise; xuraldïŋ šiitpirin bottandïr- to carry out the decision to hold a meeting.
  • bottandïrïïškïn realization, implementation.
  • bottanïïškïn realization, implementation.
  • bottanmas not realized, unrealizable; bottanmas küzel unrealizable dream.
  • bottaŋ single, on one’s own, independent, (of a family-man) without the family; (of a horseman) without fellow-traveler or luggage; bottaŋ ažïlda- to work on one’s own, without one’s family; bottaŋ čoru- to ride astride (without fellow-traveler or luggage); bottaŋ ahttïg kiži rider, horseman; bottaŋ aht riding horse, saddle-horse.
  • bottaŋna- to be alone, single, to be without family (of bachelor); to ride astride (without fellow-traveler or luggage).
  • bottug essential, material; real, realistic; practical, effective; bottug edigler important amendments; bottug edigler kiir- to amend; bottug bar čüülder ?matters of fact; bottug barïmdaa real fact; bottug ažïl practical work; bottug duza effective help; bottuu-bile čugaala- to speak to the point. [<CT *bodlïg]
  • bovurzak a dish consisting of meat dumplings wrapped in dough; cf. boorzak. [LM boγursuγ]
  • boydus nature; boydus ertemi natural science; boydus baylaktarï natural resources; ölüg boydus inanimate nature; dirig boydus living nature. [cf. LM bodis]
  • boykot boycott.
  • boykotta- to boycott, to subject to boycott.
  • boyla- to spoil, to go bad; to be doomed.
  • bozaga [bohzaga] threshold. [LM bosuγa]
  • boža sour milk residue, whey (after making liquor). [LM boĵu]
  • boža-xoytpak residue of sour milk, whey.
  • božaa ringworm.
  • božaala- to suffer from ringworm.
  • božaalan- to suffer from ringworm.
  • božaalïg suffering from ringworm.
  • božaalïk ringworm.
  • božaalïkta- to suffer from ringworm.
  • božala- to drink whey; to soak the inside of a hide in the residue of sour milk.
  • božalat- to give whey to drink; to let soak the inside of a hide in the residue of sour milk.
  • božaŋ unsteady, unstable, shaky.
  • božaŋna- [bohžaŋna-] to shake loose, to sway.
  • božaŋnaaš [bohžaŋnaaš] unsteady, unstable, shaky; božaŋnaaš čagï unstable post; božaŋnaaš baydal unstable position.
  • božaŋnaaškïn swaying, rocking.
  • božaŋnadïïškïn swaying, rocking.
  • božaŋnat- [bohžaŋnat-] to shake loose, to sway.
  • bože here, in this direction; bože čüge keldiŋ? why have you come here?
  • božu- [bohžu-] to be or become loose or empty; to give birth. [<CT *bošo-]
  • božudukču [bohžudukču] midwife.
  • božuk [bohžuk] unsteady, unstable, shaky.
  • božut- [bohžut-] to loosen, to empty; to help give birth [<CT *bošot-]
  • božuttun- [bohžuttun-] to be loosened, emptied; doskaar božuttungan the barrel was emptied.
  • božuttur- [bohžuttur-] to let loosen, empty.
  • božuu [bohžuu] quickly, fast; božuu-božuu quick, quick! [LM busigu]
  • božuu-šïmday quick, quick!
  • božuuda- [bohžuuda-] to hurry, to make haste.
  • božuula- [bohžuula-] to hurry, to make haste; božuula-božuula quick, quick! [LM busigla-]
  • božuulat- [bohžuulat-] to cause to hurry, to let make haste.

  • bödene quail. [LM büdüne]
  • bödey poor; dilapidated, old; bödey ög dilapidated house.
  • bödeyle- to set up a yurt.
  • bödeylen- to acquire a yurt, to set up house.
  • bödüree pail, bucket. [←Rus vedro]
  • bödüün simple, plain, common, ordinary, basic, elementary; bödüün bodalga simple task; bödüün kiži common person; bödüün pös plain fabric; bödüün düktüg xoylar sheep with coarse wool; bödüün bilig elementary concept; bödüün domak simple sentence (in grammar). [LM büdügün]
  • bödüünčü- to become simpler, to be simplified.
  • bödüünčüdülge simplification.
  • bödüünčürgü simple, elementary.
  • bödüünčüt- to simplify; formulanï bödüünčüt- to simplify the formula.
  • bögün today; bögün koncert bolur there will be a concert today. [<CT *bo: + *kün]
  • bögüngü of today, today’s; bögüngü solun today’s newspaper.
  • bökpeger [böhkpeger] thick, dense (e.g. of shrubs, trees); congested, piled up.
  • bökpek [böhkpek] bouquet, bunch; heap, pile; bökpek čeček a bunch of flowers; bökpek daštar a pile of stones. [cf. LM bögem]
  • bökpekteš- [böhkpekteš-] to pile up, to be gathered in a pile.
  • bökperleš- [böhkperleš-] to huddle together, to flock, to cluster.
  • böl- (böler) to gather, to assemble (in one place); čïlgï böl- to gather a herd; böle oylat- to drive together (cattle); sigen böl- to rake up grass (in one place).
  • böldeger (of clothes) baggy, awkwardly large.
  • böldey- (of clothes) to be baggy, to be awkwardly large.
  • böldün- to be gathered, to converge.
  • böldünček assembled into a heap, dense.
  • böldünüš- (böldünčür) to be united, joined, to rally; to be gathered, to converge; Sovyet ulus kommunistig partiyanï dolgandïr böldünüšken the Sovet people have rallied around the communist party; xuralče böldünüš- to gather in a meeting.
  • böldür- to let gather, assemble.
  • böle-xaara by the armful; böle-xaara segirip al- to grasp by the armful.
  • bölgeer separate, isolated, apart. [cf. CT *bö:l-]
  • bölgeet separate, isolated, apart.
  • bölgeettel- to be separated, isolated, apart.
  • bölgüm [böhlgüm] group, circle; partiya töögüzü öörenir bölgüm group for studying the history of the party; bölgüm ažïlï group work; balïk(čï) bölgüm fishing group, group of fishermen working jointly. [LM bülgüm]
  • bölgümčü [böhlgümčü] member of a group or circle.
  • bölgümneš- [böhlgümneš-] to be grouped, to be united in a group or circle.
  • bölügle- to group, to classify. [LM bülügle-]
  • bölügleeškin group, grouping.
  • bölüglel phrase; deyepričastiyelig bölüglel converb phrase; pričastiyelig bölüglel participle phrase.
  • bölügleš- to gather into groups, to form groups.
  • bölügležiiškin group, grouping, contingent; šerigniŋ murnuu talakï bölügležiiškini the southern contingent of the troops.
  • bölügležilge group, grouping, contingent.
  • bölük group, circle; party, wing, political group, faction; category; section (in a book); bölük kižiler group of people, crowd; frakciyalïg bölük fractional group; ekspediciyanïŋ birgi bölüü the first group of the expedition; buržuaz partiyanïŋ čöön bölüü the left wing of the bourgeois party; niiti ïr bölügü singing circle, chorus. [CT *bö:lük, LM bülüg]
  • bölükte- to divide into groups, to group; to classify.
  • bölükteeškin grouping, group; classification; dirig amïtannar aymaanïŋ bölükteeškini the classification of the realm of living animals.
  • bölükteš- to gather into group, to form groups.
  • bömbük ball, sphere; agaar bömbüü balloon; but bömbüü football; xol bömbüü volleyball; častïr bömbük bomb. [LM bömbüge(n)]
  • bömbükte- to play with a ball; to throw a bomb, to bomb.
  • bömbürzek globe, the Earth. [LM bömbürčeg]
  • bööl- (böglür) to stop flowing, to coagulate (e.g. of blood).
  • böölbürgey clumsy, awkward.
  • böölbüreš clumsy, awkward.
  • böölde- to turn, to spin, to twirl.
  • böölden- to turn, to spin, to be turned, spun, twirled.
  • bööldes (of a gown or garment) ungirdled, without sash or belt, thrown open.
  • bööldesten- to ungirdle, to remove the sash; tonun bööldesten- to ungirdle one’s garment.
  • bööldeš (of a gown or garment) ungirdled, without sash or belt, thrown open.
  • bööldešten- to ungirdle, to remove the sash.
  • bööldet- to turn, to spin, to make or let turn or spin.
  • böörteŋ hernia; böörteŋ kiži person suffering from inguinal hernia. [LM bögeredeng]
  • bööškün plug (of e.g. wood, a rag); piston.
  • bööškünne- to plug, to stop up, to close off.
  • bööškünnüg plugged, stopped up, closed off.
  • böpügür thick, plump, chubby. [cf. LM bömbügür]
  • böpüy- to become thick, chubby (e.g. of a child); to swell, to bulge, to inflate. [cf. LM bömbüi-]
  • böpüyt- to let swell up, to inflate (e.g. a balloon).
  • börbek [böhrbek] round, bulging, spherical; lump, clod, small ball or sphere; kïzïl xan börbekter red blood corpuscles.
  • börbekteš- [böhrbekteš-] to roll up into a ball or lump; to assume a rounded form.
  • börbeŋne- [börbeŋne-] to roll (of a ball or the eyes).
  • börbey- [böhrbey-] to be or become round, bulging, spherical.
  • börbügür thick, plump, fat; swollen, pouting, bulging (e.g. lips, face).
  • bört [böhrt] hat, cap; börgüm my hat; börgüŋ your hat; börgü his/her hat; kïškï bört winter hat; xalbaŋnïg bört cap with ear flaps; xavaktïg bört peaked cap; xavak čok bört peakless cap; kadag börgü nailhead; eeriil börgü screw nut. [<NE börk, CT *bö:rk]
  • börtek [böhrtek] boy’s penis.
  • börü wolf; kïs börü she-wolf, female wolf; börü oglu wolf cub; böru agla- to hunt wolves with a battue; börü keži wolf skin; xoy keži ketken börü wolf in sheep skin. [<CT *bö:ri]
  • börüle- to hunt for wolves.
  • börzek [böhrzek] wolf cub.
  • börzekpen wolf cub (nickname for a dog).
  • böske [böhske] case or cover for a hunting gun (covering butt and lock).
  • böskek [böhskek] breast of a bird. [<CT *böksek]
  • böskele- [böhskele-] to put a case on a hunting gun.
  • bözür [böhzür] pitted, pocked, pockmarked (of the face); uneven, rough (of a surface); toothed, jagged; pockmarck; roughness; elevation with small cliffs; place covered with stones; bözür arïn face with pockmarks; bözür sambïra rough board.
  • bözür-paga toad.
  • bözürgey [böhzürgey] pitted, pocked, pockmarked (of the face); uneven, rough (of a surface); toothed, jagged.
  • bözürer- [böhzürer-] to be or become pitted, pockmarked, rough, uneven.
  • bözüreš [böhzüreš] pitted, pocked, pockmarked (of the face); uneven, rough (of a surface); toothed, jagged.
  • bözürle- [böhzürle-] to be or become pitted, pockmarked, rough, uneven.
  • bözerlen- [böhzürlen-] to become pitted, pock-marked.

BU

  • buda- to tangle, to confuse, to mislead; to spoil, to corrupt (morally).
  • budagda- to waste, to squander, to spend money uneconomically; to embezzle.
  • budagdal spending, waste, embezzlement.
  • budal- to become mixed up (of papers); to become confused, bewildered; to become corrupt.
  • budaldïr- to tangle, to confuse, to mislead; to spoil, to corrupt (morally).
  • budalčak tangled, intricate; budalčak aytïrïg intricate issue.
  • budalïïškïn confusion, misunderstanding.
  • budaŋ careless, lacking conscientiousness, unprecise; random, chaotic, dissolute; neglected (e.g. of premises).
  • budaŋ-šaŋ careless, lacking conscientiousness, unprecise; random, chaotic; neglected (e.g. of premises).
  • budaŋ-šaŋna- to waste, to squander, to spend money uneconomically; to embezzle.
  • budaŋna- to waste, to squander, to spend money uneconomically; to embezzle.
  • budu- to dye, to colour, to paint. [LM budu-]
  • buduk dye, color, paint, ink; buduk šili ink-well. [LM buduγ]
  • buduk [buhduk] branch, bough. [<CT *butïk]
  • buduk-bazar blotting paper; paper-weight.
  • budukta- to dye, to colour, to paint.
  • budukta- to gather branches.
  • buduktal- to be smeared with dye, paint, ink; to be coloured, impregnated with a chemical dye.
  • buduktal- [buhduktal-] to branch out.
  • buduktug dyed, coloured, painted; smeared with paint, ink; filled with ink; chemically coloured; buduktug šil ink-well; buduktug karandaš indelible ink pencil.
  • buduktug [buhduktug] branched, with many boughs; buduktug ïyaš tree with branches, boughs.
  • budul- to become entangled, confused, bewildered (e.g. while reading, in one’s statement); to become mixed up (of papers); to become corrupt. [LM buduli-]
  • budulčak confused, confusing; budulčak aytïrïg intricate issue.
  • buduldur- to tangle, to confuse, to mislead; to spoil, to corrupt (morally).
  • budulgaazïn confusion.
  • budulgaazïnnïg confusing, incomprehensible; cunning, sly.
  • budulgaktïg confused, confusing, entangled, difficult to solve.
  • buduluuškun confusion, misunderstanding.
  • buduš- to dye, colour, paint together.
  • budut- to let dye, colour, paint.
  • buduttun- to be coloured (by lipstick); to put on make-up.
  • buduttur- to let dye, colour, paint.
  • buga [buhga] bull; sug bugazï hippopotamus. [<CT *buka]
  • buga [buhga] channel, ditch, trench; suggarïlga bugazï irrigation channel. [Kalm buχu]
  • buga-balïk bull-head, goby. [Rus calque: byčok]
  • bugala- to dig a channel or ditch.
  • bugalan- (of a bull) to mate.
  • bugalan- to flow through a ditch (of water, after rain).
  • bugay bull.
  • bugažïk small bull-calf.

  • büdee- [bühdee] to perform a prolonged prayer (in a yurt that has been covered from all sides). [LM bütege- to cover; bütüge- to perform (a prayer)]
  • büdeel [bühdeel] prolonged prayer (performed by lamas after the yurt has been covered from all sides). [LM bütügel]
  • büdeelge [bühdeelge] summer headgear from cloth (for protection against the rain); hood. [LM bütegelge]
  • büdümče [bühdümče] result; büdümče čok unproductive, without result; unreliable; büdümče čok ažïl unproductive labour; büdümče čok kiži unreliable person. [LM bütümĵi]
  • büdümčelig [bühdümčelig] productive, succesful; useful, efficient; reliable; büdümčelig ažïl productive labour; büdümčelig sanal constructive remark; büdümčelig kiži reliable person.
  • büdümel [bühdümel] matter, substance; natural, innate; častïr büdümelder explosives; kïvar büdümelder combustible substances; büdümel seserlik natural park.
  • büdün [bühdün] whole, entire; one-piece; büdün jablok(o) whole apple; büdün stakan sugnu iživit- to drink up an entire glass of water; büdün xün ištinde ažïldaannar they worked all day; büdün san integer; büdün art- to remain whole; büdün granit one-piece granite; čaŋgïs aay büdün a single whole, an entity; büdün čer virgin lands. [<CT *bütün, LM bütün]
  • büdün-čartïk one-and-a-half; büdün-čartïk rubl one-and-a-half ruble.
  • büdünge [bühdünge] entirely, wholly; büdünge udu- to sleep with one’s clothes on.
  • büdüngür [bühdüngür] feasible, easily done.
  • büdünne- [bühdünne-] to pick out whole (e.g. lumps of sugar). [<CT *bütünle-]
  • büdür- [bühdür-] to do, to make, to manufacture, to perform; bistiŋ ületpürüvüs narïn stanoktar büdürüp turar our industry produces complex machines. [<CT *bütür-]
  • büdürü- to stumble; to slip, to slide. [LM büdüri-]
  • büdürükčü [bühdürükčü] producer; productive; sire; ažïldïŋ büdürükčüleri superintendents of work; niitileldiŋ büdürükčü küšteri the productive forces of society.
  • büdürükčülüü [bühdürükčülüü] productivity; küš-ažïldïŋ büdürükčülüü productivity of labour.
  • büdürülge [bühdürülge] production, manufacture; socialistig büdürülge socialist production; büdürülgeniŋ čepsekteri instruments of production; büdürülge čeri enterprise; büdürülge xamaarïlgalarï production ratios; büdürülge brigadazï production brigade.
  • büdürülgeči [bühdürülgeči] production worker.
  • büdürümčelig [bühdürümčelig] creative; büdürümčelig ažïl-čorudulga creative activity.
  • büdürüüčel prone to stumbling.
  • büdüš [bühdüš] structure; mentality, character; quality, property; bister kommunister onza budüštüŋ kižileri we communists are people of a particular mentality.
  • büdüštüg [bühdüštüg] having a certain structure; modest; adequate; of high quality; onzagay büdüštüg domaktar clauses having a special structure.
  • büdüü [bühdüü] secretely, quietly, hidden; latent; büdüü čïlbïrt- to act secretly, quietly; büdüü čïlïï latent heat (in physics); aarïgnïŋ büdüü üyezi latent period of a disease. [LM bitegüü]
  • büdüü [bühdüü] the last day of the month (in the old lunar calendar); the eve of the new month; eve; büdüüzünde on the eve of; bayïrlaldïŋ büdüüzünde on the eve of the holiday. [LM bitegün]
  • büdüüle- [bühdüüle-] to act secretly, quietly.
  • büdüülük [bühdüülük] primitive, backward, ignorant; rough, vulgar; büdüülük kiži backward person. [LM büdügülig]
  • büg alveolus; diš büü alveolus. [<CT *bük]
  • büg elbow.
  • büge [bühge] (in a knucklebone game) the small bone that is placed in the middle of an erected row of figures. [cf. CT *bög]
  • bügü [bühgü] all, whole, entire; bügü čon all the people, the whole nation; bügü čurt the entire country; bügü kižiler all the people; bügü delegeyniŋ ažïlčï čonnarï workers of the entire world; aytïrïgnï bügü talazï-bile kör- to consider the matter from all angles; bügü-le all, every; bügü ... šuptuzu all. [LM bükü]
  • bügü-delegey worldwide; bügü-delegeyniŋ xereeženneriniŋ demokrattïg federaciyazï the world-wide democratic women-federation; bügü-delegeyniŋ taybïŋ čövüleli the world-wide council for peace.
  • bügü-evilel all-union; Bügü-evileldiŋ Leninči Anïyaktarïnïŋ Kommunistig Evileli the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League.
  • bügü-niiti universal; čurttakčï čonnuŋ bügü-niiti čizezi national census.
  • bügü-rossiy all-Russian; bügü-rossiy teatr niitileli the all-Russian theatrical society.
  • bügüde all, every; ol bügüde all this; bügüdevis we all; bügüde eki! hello everybody!; bügüdege bildingir well-known. [LM bügüde]
  • bük [bühk] mountain depression; narrow valley, level place at the shore of a river (at the foot of a high mountain); leeward, located in mountain depression, not accessible to winds; bük čer place protected from the wind by mountains.
  • bük- [bühk-] to tuck in; čoorgan-bile buttu bük- to tuck up the legs in a sleeping blanket.
  • büküle- [bühküle-] (of a child’s fontanels) to move, to touch.
  • büküleeš [bühküleeš] fontanel, sinciput, crown of the head.
  • bülčü- of a joint to become dislocated. [LM bulĵi-]
  • büldeger [bühldeger] large (of tears, drops of blood).
  • büldeŋeyin- [bühldeŋeyin-] (of tears) to shimmer, to flow; (of stars) to twinkle.
  • büldeŋne- [bühldeŋne-] (of tears) to shimmer, to flow; (of stars) to twinkle.
  • büldey- [bühldey-] (of tears) to shimmer, to flow.
  • büle family; group. [LM büle]
  • büle- to be luke-warm, to be hardly warm (of liquids). [cf. LM büliyed-]
  • büleen luke-warm, hardly warm (of liquid); büleen shay luke-warm tea. [LM büliyen]
  • bülgeer [bühlgeer] wooden barrel for distilling liquor. [LM bürkeger]
  • bülgür- [bühlgür-] to sprinkle, to spray, to spurt, to gush (e.g. water from the mouth). [<CT *bürkür-]
  • bülgürül- [bühlgürül-] (of blood, a fountain) to gush out, to spurt.
  • bülgürt- [bühlgürt-] to sprinkle, to pour on, to douse (from a watering can).
  • bülgürtükčü [bühlgürtükčü] sprinkler, sprayer; pulverizer.
  • bülgürtüüškün [bühlgürtüüškün] sprinkling, spraying, pulverization.
  • bülürer- to be dim, dull, lustreless, to be dimly lit.
  • bülürgey dim, dimly lit, gloomy; lustreless, dull; bülürgey čïrïk dim light; bülürgey lampa frosted lamp.
  • bülürtüleŋne- to flash, to flicker (in the twilight, darkness).
  • bülürtüleŋneeš flashing, flickering (in the twilight, darkness).
  • bülürtüŋ twilight, dusk; gloomy, dusky; dull, diffuse; bülürtüŋ apargan it became dusk; bülürtüŋ arga gloomy forest; bülürtüŋ šil frosted glass.
  • bülürtüŋne- to become dark, of dusk or twilight to fall.
  • bülürtüŋnelček twilight, dusk; gloomy, dusky; dull, diffuse.
  • bürge- [bührge-] to surround; to wrap up, to tuck up, to roll up; to become covered with clouds, to become clouded, overcast; bügün bürgey berdi today it is cloudy. [LM bürke-]
  • bürgeelel [bührgeelel] surroundings, environment.
  • bürgeeškin [bührgeeškin] bad weather, overcast weather.
  • bürgeg cloudy, overcast; cloudy weather; bürgeg xün cloudy day. [LM bürkeg]
  • bürgel- to be wrapped or tucked or rolled up; to become clouded or overcast; deer buluttar-bile bürgelgen the sky is overcast with clouds.
  • bürget- to be surrounded.
  • bürgüt golden eagle. [LM bürgüd]
  • bürgütpen eaglet (nickname of dog).
  • bürü leaf; bürüler foliage. [<CT *bür]
  • bürü each, every; čïl bürüde every year, annually; kiži bürüzü everyone, each person; orannïŋ kuš bürüzü all the birds of the country; bazïm burüzünde at every step. [LM büri]
  • bürü- to cover (with leather or other material). [LM büri-]
  • bürül- (bürlür) to wrinkle, to cockle up. [<CT *bürül-]
  • bürül- (bürlür) to die (of children). [LM büril-]
  • bürülüg having leaves.
  • bürün whole, complete; bürün ergelig enjoying full rights; plenipotentiary; bürün ergelig xamaatï citizen enjoying full rights; bürün ergelig tölee plenipotentiary representative; bürünü-bile wholly, entirely, fully, completely; silerge bürunü-bile kattïžïp tur men I fully go along with you. [LM bürin]
  • bürünne- to replenish, to supplement; to bring up to strength completely.
  • bürünčüt- to replenish, to supplement; to bring up to strength completely.
  • bürüs monkey.
  • bürüš- to wrinkle, to cockle up. [<CT *bürüš-]
  • bürüškek wrinkle, crease; in wrinkles, creased; warped.
  • bürüštür- to wrinkle (the face), to make a wry face; to crease (material, paper).
  • bürütke- to register, to fill in; to make an inventory; anketaga bürütke- to fill in a form. [LM büridke-]
  • bürütkediiškin registration, filling in (of a form).
  • bürütkekči registrar. [LM büridkegči]
  • bürütkel form; list; inventory. [LM büridkel]
  • bürütkeš- to help register.
  • bürutket- to be registered, to be filled in.
  • bürütkettin- to register oneself, to be registered.
  • büškügür [bühškügür] hunch-backed.
  • büškük [bühškük] hump, hunch-backed (of humans).
  • büšküür [bühšküür] wind instrument used in religious ceremonies; büšküür tuŋ trumpet shell. [LM biskigür]
  • büšküy- [bühšküy-] to stoop, to be hunch-backed.
  • büt- [büht-] (büder) to come true, to be realised, achieved, fulfilled; to happen, to occur; to consist of; to go well, to get going, to get on, to get right; (of a wound) to be overgrown, to heal; meeŋ alïs küzelim bütken my cherished dream has been fulfilled; balïg büde bergen the wound healed; bodu bütken innate, natural. [<CT *büt-]
  • bütkür all, entire, wholly, completely; bütkür bodu-bile tur- to rise in one’s full length; bütkür bodu kök sug apargan s/he got soaked to the skin. [cf. LM bügüdeger]
  • bütküy- to stoop, to be hunch-backed.
  • bütpes alien, stranger; hostile, inimical; unfavourable, wrong, bad; not getting along, not going well, not working out; bütpes ideget alien element.
  • büüle gum. [LM büyile]
  • büürek kidney; the tip of the finger of the hand; büürek aarïï kidney disease; büürek xini renal pelvis. [<CT *bögürek]
  • büürekčigeš bud. [cf. Rus počka kidney; bud]
  • büürekte- to embrace a child to warm it.
  • büürektel- (of a tree) to develop buds.
  • büürelčin hill, hillock, knoll, mound.
  • büürelčinnig hilly; büürelčinnig čerler hilly grounds.
  • büüze Chinese trading post. [LM püüse(n) ←Ch]
  • büzeele- to surround, to besiege, to lay siege; dayzïnnï büzeele- to surround the enemy. [LM büsele-]
  • büzeelediiškin siege, blockade, encirclement; state of laying under siege.
  • büzeeleeškin siege, blockade, encirclement.
  • büzeelel siege, blockade, encirclement; xooraynïŋ buzeeleli the siege of city.
  • büzeelet- to be surrounded, blocked, to be under siege, to be beleaguered.
  • büzeelettir- to be surrounded, blocked, to be under siege, to be beleagered.
  • büzüre- to believe, to trust, to confide in, to hope; to be convinced; (men) seŋee büzüreer men I believe you; am men ort(t)a büzüredim now I am convinced of it. [LM bisire-]
  • büzüredig belief, conviction, persuasion; assurance.
  • büzürediiškin belief, conviction, persuasion; assurance.
  • büzüredikse- to try to convince, assure.
  • büzüredilge warrant; büzüredilge-bile al- ~ büzüredilge yozugaar al- to obtain by warrant.
  • büzüreečel trusting, credulous.
  • büzüreeškin belief, faith, persuasion, conviction; confidence.
  • büzürel belief, faith, trust, confidence; hope; čanïš-sïnïš čok büzürel belief. [LM bisirel]
  • büzüreldig reliable, trustworthy; confident; büzüreldig barïmdaalar reliable data; bo dugayïnda men ïyak büzüreldig men I am very confident about this; büzüreldig xarïï confident answer.
  • büzürenčig believable, probable, plausible.
  • büzüret- to convince, to persuade; to assure, to prove.