Lesson 2

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Тыва Дыл Kичээллер
Lesson 0 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4

Tyvan Lesson 2: Introductions - Тыва Дыл Ийиги Kичээл

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by Stacey Borsody
All rights reserved

Dialog - Чугаалажыр

Try translating each dialog. There is vocabulary below (incomplete).

One

Person 1 - Экии. Ekii.
Person 2 - Экии. Ekii.
Person 1 - Мээң адым Стейси. Адыңар кымыл? Meeŋ adym Stacey. Adyŋar kymyl?
Person 2 - Мээң адым Игор. Meeŋ adym Igor.
Person 1 - Танышканывыс эки болду Tanyshkanyvys eki boldu.
Person 2 - Ийе мене база эки болду Ije, mene baza eki boldu.

Two

Person 1 - Бо кымыл? Bo kymyl?
Person 2 - Бо мээң эжим-дир. Ооң ады Игор. Bo meeŋ ezhim-dir. Ooŋ ady Igor.
Person 1 - Ол кымыл? Ol kymyl?
Person 2 - Ол мээң башкым. Ооң ады Анна. Ol meeŋ bashkym-dyr. Ooŋ ady Anna.
Person 1 - Бо чүл? Bo chül?
Person 2 - Бо аът-тыр. Bo a't-tyr.
Person 1 - Ол чүл? Ol chül?
Person 2 - Ол хем-дир. Ol khem-dir.

Vocabulary - Сөстер

One

экии ekii hello
ат at name
ада- ada- to call, be named
мээң meeŋ my
таныш- tanysh- to get aquainted
эки eki good

Two

бо bo this
кым kym who
эш esh friend
ооң ooŋ his
ол (дөө) ol (döö) that
башкы bashky teacher
чүү chüü what
аът a't horse
хем khem river

Grammar - Дүрүмнери

Demonstrative Pronouns - Айтылганың ат орнулар

Бо - This
Дөө, Ол - That

(Needs clarification of any sort of difference in using döö versus ol. It seems interchangable to me so I've used it this way in the lesson. Anderson/Harrison list döö as meaning 'that one there' and as being obsolete. Krueger is almost completely opposite and doesn't even use 'ol', which he says means 'that one there'.)

Examples

Бо аът-тыр. Bo a't-tyr. This is a horse.
Ол садыг-дыр. Ol sadyg-dyr. That is a store.
Бо хем-дир. Bo khem-dir. This is a river.
Дөө ном-дур. Döö nom-dur. That is a book.

Interrogative Pronouns - Айтытыгның ат орнулар

Чүү - What
Кым - Who

Always use kym when talking about humans. For both chüü (what) and kym (who) an -l gets added onto the end of the word. The reason for this can be a confusing idea to grasp and it is not something translatable. It's called deixis. Take for example a question like 'bo chül?'. Unless I am in a room with you and we are both standing by the object I am asking you about, you wouldn't know what the answer to 'this' is supposed to be. It is the same thing as if I told you the word 'yesterday'. You have no idea which day specifically I am referring to unless you knew what the date of today was when I said the word. This concept is grammaticalized in Tyvan by the use of the -l ending.

Who is this? Who is that?

Бо кымыл? Bo kymyl? Who is this?
Бо Стейси-дир. Bo Stacey-dir. This is Stacey.
Ол кымыл? Ol kymyl? Who is that?
Ол эмчи-дир. Ol emchi-dir. That is a doctor.

What is this? What is that?

Бо чүл? Bo chül? What is this?
Бо садыг-дыр. Bo sadyg-dyr. This is a store.
Дөө чүл? Döö chül? What is that?
Дөө аът-тыр. Döö a't-tyr. That is a horse.

Enclitics

An enclitic is a word particle that is influenced by the properties of the word it modifies, like by having vowel harmony, but doesn't attach to it like a suffix would. In Tyvan, typically enclitics follow the words they modify and are spelled with a - in front. In the answers to the above questions, we are using /-DIr/. This ending is being used for emphasis or focus. It has several different forms based upon round vowel harmony. The following charts show the relationship between these different forms and the words they get used with. Refer to Lesson 1: Vowels and Consonants for information about how vowel harmony works.

For words that end with an unvoiced consonant (т п с ш х к ч):

The word is front unrounded idik
ezhik
+ -tir
The word is back unrounded shak
a't
+ -tyr
The word is front rounded kök
süt
+ -tür
The word is back rounded sook
ok
+ -tur

For words that end with everything else:

The word is front unrounded emchi
eki
+ -dir
The word is back unrounded sadyg
bashky
+ -dyr
The word is front rounded dün
öreel
+ -dür
The word is back rounded ulug
nom
+ -dur

Practice

One

If you are lucky enough to have a partner help you, have your partner ask you 'Bo chül?' and 'Ol chül?' and you try to answer the questions. Hint:Watch for the vowel harmony in the /-DIr/ enclitic.

ном (book), карандаш (pencil), телевизер (television), холчугаш (pen), саазын (paper), стол (table), диван (couch), сандай (chair), машина (car), лампа (lamp)

Two

Practice with a partner asking the questions 'Bo kymyl?', 'Ol kymyl?', using the following words as answers.

Оюн (Oyun), башкы (teacher), хөөмейжи (khöömej singer), Света (Sveta), ава (mother), ада (father), Мерген (Mergen)