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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • oblast region; Moskva oblazï the region of Moscow.
  • očuldur- to translate.
  • očuldurukču translator.
  • očuldurukčula- to be translator, to work as a translator.
  • očuldurt- to let translate.
  • očuldurtun- to be translated.
  • očulduruš- to translate together.
  • očulga translation.
  • oda- to bake; to heat, to kindle. [<CT *o:ta-]
  • oda- [ohda-] to insult, to offend; to evoke rain by means of magic (using certain herbs). [cf. CT *ota-]
  • odaaškïn heating.
  • odaaškïn [ohdaaškïn] offence, insult.
  • odag hearth; bonfire; hunter’s camp; odag sal- to erect a bonfire. [<CT *otag]
  • odalga heating; bustug odalga heating with steam; odalga sezonu heating season.
  • odar [ohdar] pasture.
  • odar-belčiir pasture.
  • odarlat- [ohdarlat-] to pasture, to shepherd.
  • oduču sorcerer, sorceress.
  • odug awake, waking, not sleeping.
  • odun- (ottur) to wake up, to become awake. [<CT *odun-]
  • odur- [ohdur-] to cut through, to chop.
  • odurt- to go on a mountain slope.
  • odurt- [ohdurt-] to let cut through.
  • odurug path (in the mountains).
  • odurug [ohdurug] line, row, rank; murnuku odurug front-lines.
  • odurul- to be cut.
  • oduš small birchbark trough.
  • ogaan (western dial.) cf. nogaan green.
  • oglaa fearful, easily scared.
  • oglaŋay shaft of a carriage. [←Rus oglobli]
  • oglaŋna- to caress, to fondle; (of dogs) to fawn upon, to wag the tail; to lick up to, to lick somone’s boots.
  • oglaŋna- to trot.
  • ogu- to belch.
  • ogur- to roar, to bellow.
  • ok [ohk] arrow; bullet. [<CT *ok]
  • okkur swift; okkur aht swift horse.
  • okpaŋ-čikpeŋ (~ opaŋ-čipeŋ) smart, bright, sharp, lively.
  • okta truly, absolutely, perfectly, at all (only in negations); okta šïn eves it is not true at all.
  • okta- to load, to charge; boo okta- to load a gun; xolalarnï okta- to fill the cartridge-cases. [<CT *okta-]
  • okta- [ohkta-] to throw, to hurl, to fling, to cast; to beat, to win (at a sporting game); daš okta- to throw stones; to take a crap, to shit; granata okta- to throw a granate; kuduruk okta- to kick the bucket, to die (lit. to fling the tail).
  • oktaaškïn throw, throwing, casting.
  • oktargay universe, cosmos, world.
  • oktyabr October. [←Rus oktjabr’]
  • ol that, he, she, it; olar they, those; ooŋ of that, his, her, its; aŋaa (~ aa) to him, her, it; thither; onu that, him, her, it; ïnda at him, her, it; there; oon from him, her, it; thence, thereupon; olče ~ olduva to him, her, it; thither; oom that thing of mine; ooŋ that thing of yours; oozu that thing of him, her, theirs; oovus that thing of ours; ooŋar that thing of yours, you all; ol-dur that means; ol arazïnda among them; ol deerge anyway; ol doraan immediately; ol xeveer thus, in this way; ooŋ-bile kadï together with that; aŋaa ber give it to him; aŋaa užuražïr bis we will meat with him; ooŋ-bile kadï together with that; meŋee seeŋ ooŋ čerle taarïšpas-tïr that stuff of yours does not please me. [<CT *ol]
  • ol-bo a certain, this or another, some; several.
  • olarnïï theirs, belonging to them.
  • olbuk mattress, cushion, rug (to sit on).
  • olča use, a find, a catch; gain, profit, success, good luck; aŋčïlarnïŋ olčazï hunter’s catch; olarnïŋ ölčazï čüü bolgan? what is their catch? (i.e. what child was born to them, a boy or a girl?). [LM olĵa]
  • olčaan similar; likewise.
  • olčalïg advantageous, profitable, lucrative.
  • olur- to live, to be at a place, to sit; -(I)p olur (progressive/continuous); olurgaš (introducing direct speech). [<CT *olur-]
  • olurt- to make sit, to offer a seat; to put in prison; to plant (a tree); stol artïnda olurt- to make sit at the table.
  • olut the act of sitting; seat; ažïk čok olut sitting idle; xostug olut free place (to sit).
  • olutpay lazy, idle; olutpay kiži an idle person.
  • olutpayla- to be idle, withour work.
  • olutta- to be idle, withour work.
  • omaaš wooden spoon. [Khakas omaš]
  • omak merry, happy; lively, frisky.
  • omak people, nationality. [LM omoγ]
  • omakšï- to take courage.
  • on ten. [<CT *o:n]
  • onaag taxation, rating; production quota; opponent in wrestling.
  • onaalga lesson, assignment.
  • onaaš- to fit; to fall on (a day).
  • onča safe and sound, available, at hand (e.g. of livestock).
  • ončala- to check, to verify the presence (usually of livestock). [LM ončala-]
  • onu that; him, her; cf. ol that.
  • onza special, especially. [LM onča]
  • onzagay specific. [LM ončaγai]
  • you see, you know, well.
  • right, right side; oŋ xol right hand. [<CT *oŋ]
  • consiousness.
  • oŋ- to fade, to wither. [<CT *oŋ-]
  • oŋčok unconscious, unintentional, thoughtless; very; oŋčok kortkan kiži a very frightened person.
  • oŋga- to be thirsty, to want to drink.
  • oŋgak gap, hollow, groove, cavity, excavation; gaping, yawning; oŋgak üt gaping hole; oŋgak karaktar deep-lying eyes.
  • oŋgalčïk gap, hollow, groove, cavity, excavation.
  • oŋgar gap, hole, hollow, deepening. [LM ongqur]
  • oŋgar- to restore to consiousness.
  • oŋgarar- to become hollow, to deepen, to sink in (hole, cavity, eyes).
  • oŋgarart- to have restore to consiousness
  • oŋgašta- to hollow out.
  • oŋgat- to make thirsty.
  • oŋgay- (of a hole, wound) to gape, to yawn; to become hollow, to deepen, to sink in. [LM oŋγai-]
  • oŋgayt- to hollow out.
  • oŋgu trench, entrenchment; oŋgu dayïnï hand-to-hand fighting, combat in the trenches.
  • oŋuučal (of fabric) fadable, easily fading, discolouring.
  • oo stinking fluid (from marter-like animals); poison. [<CT *agu]
  • oo-xoran poison, poisonous; pungent, very salt.
  • ooda even if, although.
  • oodurba bran. [←Rus otrubi]
  • ook- (oogar) to get poisoned (e.g. of food products). [<CT *aguk-]
  • ool son; young of an animal; oglu his/her son; ool duŋma younger brother; oglunuŋ oglu grandson; adïg oglu bear cub; dagaa oglu chick (young chicken); kuš oglu nestling; xavan oglu piglet. [<CT *ogul]
  • oola- to go in a certain direction.
  • oola- to release a stinking liquid.
  • oolak small child. [<CT *oglak]
  • oolčugaš little boy.
  • ooldug having a son, sons, having young.
  • oon from him, her; thence, thereupon; cf. ol that.
  • oon-moon from here and there; from all sides.
  • ooŋ of that, him, her; cf. ol that.
  • ooŋuu his, hers; bo ton ooŋuu this garment is his, hers; ooŋuu-bile according to him, her; ooŋuu-bile bis šïn xödelgen-dir bis according to him, we acted right.
  • oor thief. [<CT *ogur]
  • oor- to break down.
  • oorga spine, back; mountain ridge; roof beam; oorga čünü spinal marrow; oorga söögü backbone. [<CT *oŋurtka]
  • oorgala- to warm the back (on a bonfire).
  • oorgalïg having a back; oorgalïg sanday chair.
  • oorgulaštïr thievish.
  • oorla- to steal, to be a thief, to rob, to pilfer. [<CT *ogurla-]
  • oorlaaškïn stealing, theft, pilfery.
  • oorlan- to steal, to be a thief.
  • oorlaš- to steal together; to steal from one another.
  • oorlat- (~ oorlattïr-) to let steal; to be robbed. [<CT *ogurlat-]
  • oortan from there, thence.
  • ooruk colar bone; the broad border of coloured ribbons, sewn onto the middle of the upper part of an old woman’s dress. [<CT *ogrug]
  • ooruk wretched.
  • ooržu thief; thieving; ooržu kiži thief.
  • ootpak burdock.
  • oozu that thing of him, her, it, theirs; cf. ol that.
  • oožum quiet, slow; quietly, slowly; Oožum Okean the Pacific.
  • oožurga- to become calm, to calm down. [LM aγuĵira-]
  • oožurgat- to make calm, to calm down.
  • op cunning, guile; ruse. [LM ob]
  • opčok mad, crazy, wild; opčok ok stray bullet.
  • optug cunning; dexterious.
  • opta- to be cunning; to deceive. [LM obla-]
  • or < olur; orar < olurar; orda < olurarda; organ < olurgan; cf. olur- to sit.
  • or- to tear; ora tïrt- to tear into pieces.
  • ora-soma ghost.
  • oraa- to wrap up, to wrap around; to wind around, to twine. [LM oriya-]
  • oraalga wrapper, cover, packing. [LM oriyalγa]
  • oraaš- to get into confusion (threads); to curl, to wind (of plants); to bother, to be importune.
  • oraaškak confused, tangled (of thread); obtrusive (of a person).
  • oraaškïn foot-binding (worn instead of socks).
  • oraaškïnna- to put on foot bindings.
  • oraaštïg obtrusive, importune; tricky, scheming; over-free, unduly familiar; oraaštïg aytïrïg tricky question; oraaštïg kiži over-free person.
  • oraaštïr- to make confused, tangled up (thread); to lash, to whip.
  • oraat- to make wrap up, wind around, twine.
  • oraattïn- (~ oraan-) to wind oneself around, to twine oneself around, to wrap oneself up.
  • oralakčï deputy, vice-.
  • oraldaš- to try, to strive.
  • oran country, state; earth, world; place, region; üstüü oran upper world; aldïï oran nether world; xün oranï paradise; aza oranï hell. [LM oron]
  • oran-delegey world. [LM oron + delekei]
  • oran- to snort (of horses).
  • oray late; oray küzün late in autumn. [LM oroi]
  • orayta- (of the day) to come to an end, to draw to a close, of the evening to fall; to be late, to stay too long; šak oraytay berdi it has become late already. [LM oroita-]
  • orba the rattle on a shaman’s drum.
  • orbak torn, holey (of clothes).
  • orbandï ice-hummock, block of ice. [cf. LM orbun]
  • ordu palace. [<CT *ordu]
  • orgaaday ginseng. [LM orqudui]
  • orgak improvident, quick and hastily done.
  • orgak [ohrgak] chronical disease.
  • organ organ; minniiškin organnar senses, organs of sense. [←Rus organ]
  • orgu [ohrgu] smooth, level; orgu čer plain.
  • orgulaaš plain, level spot.
  • orlan smart, lively, frisky, capable, adroit, bold; orlan kiži a smart person.
  • orluučal breakable.
  • orna- to change, to exchange, to barter. [<CT *orna-]
  • ornaaškïn exchange.
  • ornat- to have changed, exchanged, bartered.
  • ornukšut- to bury, to inter.
  • orta [ohrta] normally, as follows.
  • orta [orta ~ ohrta] there, at that place; then, at that time, moment; as soon as.
  • ortaa middle; Ortaa čöön čük the Middle-East; ortaakï being in the middle, middle-.
  • ortaa-mergen middle finger (in games).
  • ortalan- to stop fooling around, to calm down, to become sensible, to come to one’s senses.
  • ortan middle; bo aynïŋ ortan üyezinde in the middle of this month.
  • ortu middle; dün ortuzunda in the middle of the night; ortuzundan from among; ulustuŋ ortuzundan üngen maadïr a hero who stood up from among the people. [<CT *orto]
  • ortuluk island. [*ortuluk]
  • ortumak middle, medial, average; ortumaa-bile on average.
  • ortun middle; ortun akïzï the middle brother; ortun ool middle one of the sons.
  • ortun-kara dear one, beloved, sweetheart.
  • oru gadfly larva.
  • oruk journey; road, path; oruk aytïr sïldïs guiding star, lodestar; čer adanïŋ demir oruu underground, metro. [<CT *orok]
  • oruk cf. orbak torn, holey (of clothes).
  • orukta- to set out, to set off, to go on one’s way, to hit the road.
  • oruk-čečee plantain.
  • orun bed; place; ornunga in stead of. [<CT *orun]
  • orus Russian.
  • orusta- to speak Russian; orustap bilir siler be? do you know (speak) Russian?
  • os wind fallen wood; jam, obstruction in a river.
  • oskun- to drop, to let go of; to let slip; to lose; medel oskun- to faint away.
  • prediction.
  • oška- to kiss. [<CT *okša-]
  • ošta- to prophecy, to predict, to foretell, to betoken, to foreshadow, to herald.
  • ot fire. [<CT *o:t]
  • oht grass. [<CT *ot]
  • otčugaš flame, light; ïrakta otčugaš xïp tur a light is shining in the distance
  • ohtkar- to pasture cattle. [<CT *otkar-]
  • otkula- to kindle.
  • otryad section. [←Rus otrjad]
  • ohtta- to graze. [<CT *otla-]
  • ottug having fire; ottug dag volcano.
  • ottug-ïyaš matches.
  • ottug-terge automobile, car.
  • ottug-xeme motor ship.
  • ottuk (steel) flint; ottuk dergizi ~ bižek dergizi small strap for fastening the steel and knife to te belt. [CT *otluk]
  • ottul- to heat, to stoke; suugu ottul- to heat the oven; ottular čüül fuel; suuk ottular čüül fuel oil; kadïg ottular čüül solid fuel; ottular čüül kurlavïrï fuel resources.
  • ottur- to wake up, to awaken, to arouse.
  • otturt- to cause to or let wake up, awaken.
  • otturukču alarm clock.
  • ovaa obo (ceremonial pile of stones, usually erected on high places to honour mountain spirits); mound, kurgan; heap, stack, pile; ovaa dagï- to conduct a religious ceremony at an obo; ovaa saazïn pile of paper. [Oirat owaa, LM oboγa(n)]
  • ovaaday crown; the cone-shaped headgear of a lama.
  • ovaala- to form into a heap, to pile up; daštarnï ovaalap kaan s/he piled up the stones.
  • ovaalaaškïn the act of piling up.
  • ovaalan- to form a heap, pile.
  • ovaalančak like an obo, heap, pile; heaped up into a pile.
  • ovaalaš- to form into a heap, pile up together.
  • ovaalat- to let form into a heap, pile up.
  • ovaar- to pay attention to, to pay heed to, to notice, to note.
  • ovaarïmčalïg careful.
  • ovur attitude, manner, bearing. [LM obur]
  • ovuuzun slyness, cunning, guile, ruse, trickery, perfidy.
  • ovuuzunna- to be sly, cunning, to use guile, trickery.
  • ovuuzunnan- to pretend, to feign.
  • ovuuzunnug sly, cunning, full of guile, ruses, tricks.
  • ox oh!; ox čarazžïn! oh! how beautiful!
  • oxaay ~ oxalay well-well.
  • oy lowland, valley. [CT *o:y]
  • oy dun, isabel (horse coat). [<CT *oy]
  • oy anniversary. [LM oi]
  • oy (of a coat) light; oy ton light fur coat (made from sheep skin with the wool grown after the spring shearing); slight overcoat.
  • oy oh!; oy kančaarïŋ ol?! oh, what have you done?!; kažarïn körem oy oh, how cunning s/he is!
  • oy- to hit through, to hit a hole into, to pierce. [CT *o:y-]
  • oy- to walk around, to circumvent; xayanï oya bergen bis we circumvented the cliff.
  • oyaar similar,resembling; iyezi-le oyaar urug-dur it is a girl resembling her mother.
  • oyaktal- to seclude oneself, to retire from; to avoid, to shun; ulustan oyaktal- to shun people.
  • oyalïk glade, clearing.
  • oybak hole, opening.
  • oybun blot, stain; spot, patch (on animal’s coat).
  • oyda-kayda garrulous, talkative.
  • oyla- to chase away, to drive away.
  • oymak glade, light spot in the woods. [<NE *oymak]
  • oyna- to play, to joke. [<CT *oyna-]
  • oynaar-kïs doll.
  • oynaarak toy; doll.
  • oynakčï player; actor.
  • oyt oh!; oyt kančaarïŋ ol! oh, what is it you are doing!
  • oyta düš- to go back on one’s promise, to retract one’s promise; to suddenly turn back.
  • oytala- to refuse.
  • oytay- to lean back.
  • oytayt- to throw back, to fold back, to retract.
  • oytur okta- to throw one down on both shoulder blades (in wrestling).
  • oyuk hole, gap.
  • oyul- to be pierced.
  • oyulgan ulcer.
  • oyun game, play. [<CT *oyun]
  • oyun-baštak joke, game.
  • oyundak patch, scrap (of fabric), plot (of land).
  • oyunzak playful.
  • oyus- (oyzur, oyuzar) to go past, to pass by; to call by another name, to employ a taboo name; börünü kokay dep oyzup adaar they call the wolf kokay as a taboo name.
  • oyuš- to distort, to bend.
  • ozal slow, hesitatingly.
  • ozala- to be slow, to be hesitant.
  • ozalaaš aside; ol turlag oruktan ozalaaš that camp aside from the road.
  • ozalda- to be too late for; ol čïïštan ozalda- to be too late for that meeting.
  • ozaldïg dangerous.
  • ozaŋ wind fallen wood; obstruction in a river.
  • ozuk pickaxe, hoe.
  • ozukta- to hoe, to work with a hoe.
  • ozuruk rootlets (of a bulbous plant).
  • ožaa- to notice, to note, to mark.
  • ožuk trivet, tripod to cook upon. [<CT *o:čok hearth]
  • ožuk [ohžuk] snow (on the branches of a tree).