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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • sa properly, as it should be.
  • saada- to be delayed, to delay, to linger. [LM saγata-]
  • saada- to sit down, to be seated, to settle; saadap körüŋer be seated please.
  • saadaaškïn delay.
  • saadak quiver. [LM saγadaγ]
  • saadal delay. [LM saγatal]
  • saadat- to cause to be delayed, to delay.
  • saam the act of milking. [<CT *sagïm]
  • saamčï- of the breast to fill with milk.
  • saan milch cow.
  • saančï milkmaid, milker; milch animal; saančï inek milch cow.
  • saančïla- to work as a milkmaid, milker.
  • saar side, flank; saarï čarïlgïže semiri- (of a horse) to grow stout, to put on flesh. [<CT *sïŋar ~ *saŋar]
  • saar part of the foot near the toes.
  • saar [soft leather]; kara saar idik black, soft leather boot. [LM saγari(n)]
  • saar- to cool (down); to winnow (grain); to put into circulation (money); to sell at a profit.
  • saarzïk odd (number); one of a pair; saarzïk san odd number; saarzïk sapïk odd boot, single boot, boots that are not of one pair.
  • saaskan magpie; saaskan izi xar thin layer of snow, powdery snow. [<CT *sagïzgan]
  • saat delay; hindrance, impediment, obstacle; saat čok(ka) without delay, at once; saat užuraštïr- to prevent, to impede. [LM saγad]
  • saat mastix of the larch tree used as chewing gum; ear wax. [cf. CT *sakïz]
  • saat carotid artery.
  • saattal- to become pregnant.
  • saattalïïškïn pregnancy.
  • saattan- to become pregnant.
  • saattanïïškïn pregnancy.
  • saattïg with delays, impediments, hindrances.
  • saattïg pregnant; saattïg kiži pregnant woman.
  • saavïr instruction; saavïr al- to receive or obtain instructions.
  • saazïïr large knife, chopper (for cutting up meat).
  • saazïn paper. [LM čaγasu(n)]
  • sad garden. [←Rus sad]
  • sadar-samïïn prostitution.
  • sadïg trade, commerce, business; shop, store; ahš-čem sadïï provisions shop; nom sadïï book store. [<CT *satïg]
  • sadïgla- to go shopping.
  • sadïgžï trader, merchant, dealer, salesperson. [<CT *satïgčï]
  • sag- (saar) to milk; saar inek milch cow. [<CT *sag-]
  • sagaa gonorhoea. [LM saqaγu]
  • sagaala- to suffer from gonorhoea.
  • sagaan white; cf ak. [LM]
  • sagï- to observe, to protect. [LM saki-]
  • sagïl vow; sagïl čettir- to take one’s monastic vows. [LM sakil]
  • sagïldak without saddle, bare-back; cf. čavïdak.
  • sagïn- (saktïr) to remember, to recall. [<CT *sakïn-]
  • sagïndïr- to let know beforehand, to give advance notice, to warn; to remind; to give the impression or appearance of, to seem; oruk meŋee dïka uzun ïškaš sagïndïrgan the road seemed very long to me.
  • sagïndïrïg notice, warning, reprimand; xöy-niitiniŋ sagïndïrïïn ber- to give a public reprimand; sagïndïrïg ber- to give the impression, appearance of.
  • sagïïzïn talisman, amulet. [LM sakiγulsu(n)]
  • sagïš thought, mind, character, intention; sagïška kir- to come to mind, to recall; sagïš aarïï mental illness; sağïs amïr peace of mind; sagïš aarï- to be very upset, anxious, troubled; to regret, to repent. [<CT *sakïš]
  • sagïš-setkil mind, character, spirit; sagïš-setkil ködürlüüškünü enthusiasm; sagïš-setkil kattïžïïškïnï solidarity.
  • sagïštïg having an intention; ak sagïštïg having good intentions, good, kind; bak sagïštïg having bad intentions, unkind, evil; kara sagïštïg evil. [<CT *sakïštïg]
  • saglaŋ branchy, forked (of shrubs); tousled (of hair); double (of flowers).
  • saglaŋayïn- to stir, to move, to sway, to heave, to flutter, to quiver (rhythmically).
  • saglaŋna- to stir, to move, to sway, to heave, to flutter, to quiver.
  • saglaŋnat- to let stir, move, sway, heave, flutter, quiver.
  • saglay- (of shrubs) to be branched, forked; (of hair) to be tousled.
  • saglayt- to tousle (the hair).
  • sak the end of a bow; üstüü sak upper end of the bow; aldïï sak lower end of the bow.
  • sak grain (unripe).
  • sakpak lower ribs.
  • sakpïŋ saucepan.
  • saksagay horse’s fetlock.
  • saktïïškïn memory.
  • sal raft, float. [<CT *sa:l]
  • sal facial hair; segel salï beard; erin salï moustache. [<CT *sakal]
  • sal- to place, to put, to lay, to apply; to release; to make up; ört sal- to set fire to; sorulga sal- to set the task of; čüve bürüzün čïdar čeringe sal- to put a thing in its proper place; bažïŋ tavaa sal- to lay the foundations of a house; egezin sal- to make a start with, to begin; nomnu polkaga sal- to put the book on the shelf; bumba sal- to apply cupping glasses; čiŋ sal- to apply a compress; akša sal- to stake money (in a game of chance); bižik demdee sal- to apply punctation marks; aytïrïg sal- to ask a question; šïdïraa sal- to play chess; ahttï sal- to release the horse; aht sal- to take a crap, to shit. [<CT *sal-]
  • sal-čülüür razor, blade.
  • salaa finger; biče salaa little finger; dörtkü salaa ring finger, fourth finger; ortaa salaa (~ ortaakï salaa) middle finger; aytïr salaa index finger. [LM salaγa(n)]
  • salaa-saygit hand.
  • salbïr division, branch. [LM salburi]
  • salčï rafter, ferry-man.
  • salda- to raft, to float on a raft.
  • saldar influence.
  • saldarlïg influential.
  • saldïn- to be released, to be set.
  • saldïr- to let or make to place, put, lay, apply, to let release. [<CT *saltur-]
  • salgakčï successor, heir, follower.
  • salgal heritage, legacy.
  • salgïn weak wind, soft breeze. [LM salki(n)]
  • salïg turn, round, game; xüreštiŋ birgi salïï the first round in wrestling; söölgü salïg final game.
  • salïïškïn contribution; ertemge ünelig salïïškïn membership contribution.
  • salïkčï depositor; second (in a duel or match).
  • salïm fate, destiny, fortune.
  • salïm-čayaan talent, ability, endowment.
  • salïm-čol talent, ability, endowment.
  • salïmnïg talented, gifted.
  • salïš- (~ salčïr) to put together, to assemble; to help put together; to run (away); to set free; ïŋay-beer salïš- to run hither and thither; bïzaalarnï salčïr sen you must help me to set free the bull calfs.
  • salïštïg: salïštïg kiži good chess player.
  • sam Buddhist mask dance. [LM sam ←LT]
  • saman adobe. [←Rus saman]
  • sambïŋ abacus; sambïŋga sana- to count with an abacus. [LM sampin ←Ch]
  • sambïŋna- to count with an abacus.
  • sambïra blackboard. [LM sambar ←LT]
  • samdar tattered, torn.
  • samïïn uprising, revolt, insurrection, rebellion, mutiny, riot. [LM samaγu(n)]
  • samïïnnar rebels, insurgents, mutineers, rioteers.
  • samna- to perform a sports dance (before Tuvan wrestling); to take part in a religious dance; to dance.
  • samolyot airplane. [←Rus samolet]
  • san number, quantity, account; büdün san whole numbers; üürmek san fractional numbers; san ertemi mathematics; kiži sanï number of people. [<CT *sa:n]
  • sana- to think, to consider; to count, to calculate. [<CT *sa:na-]
  • sanal supposition, suggestion. [LM sanal]
  • sanal-onal opinion. [LM sanal-onol]
  • sanalda- to offer, to propose; to hold a speech.
  • sanat- to let think, consider, reckon, count, calculate; to be thought, considered, counted, reckoned; to be registered, to register oneself.
  • sanattïn- to be thought, considered; to be counted; sanattïnmas unthinkably, incalculably.
  • sanattïr- cf. sanat- to let think, reckon, count; to be thought, reckoned, counted, registered.
  • sanday chair. [LM sandali ←Ir]
  • saŋ incense. [LM sang]
  • saŋ finances, treasure. [LM sang ←Ch]
  • saŋmal milk beverage, dairy drink (collective name for sour milk, kumyss, arak, etc.).
  • sap lymph.
  • sapïk (high-)boot. [←Ru sapog]
  • sapuluut fence. [←Rus zaplot]
  • sara light bay (horse coat).
  • saraat stack, rick, pile.
  • saradak yearling maral (Siberian deer).
  • sarala (< sara ala) skewbald, yellowish (horse coat). [cf. LM saral ~ saγaral]
  • sarapsal rhubarb.
  • saray barn.
  • sarbaa one-year-old foal (born in autumn). [LM sarbaγa]
  • sarbaškïn monkey; European. [LM sarmaγčin ~ sarbačin]
  • sargar- to become yellow, to turn yellow. [<CT *sargar-]
  • sargï tick. [<NE *sakar(t)kï]
  • sargïyak third stomach, omasum. [<CT *sarkïňuk]
  • sarï buzzard. [LM sar]
  • sarïg yellow; blond; sap-sarïg very yellow. [<CT *sa:rïg]
  • sarïg-arï wasp.
  • sarïg-kuduruk field-mouse; tobacco (lit. yellow tail).
  • sarïg-kundus beaver; otter; sarïg-kundus keži beaver fur.
  • sarïg-öyek species of lizard.
  • sarïg-šažïn Buddhism (the yellow faith).
  • sarïg-sug whey, butter-milk; serum.
  • sarïg-suglan- of buttermilk to form.
  • sarïgzïmaar yellowish; cf. sarïmzïk.
  • sarïïl reason, mind, intellect.
  • sarïïldïg reasonable, wise.
  • sarïïm dear, loved, beloved.
  • sarïmzïk yellowish; cf. sarïgzïmaar.
  • sarlïk yak. [LM sarlug]
  • sarlïk-dege species of mouse (living in rock holes).
  • sartïk present, gift.
  • saržag (< sarïg čag) butter.
  • saska heap of flat stones arranged in a figure (usually on a mountain); stone sarcophagus.
  • sat- to sell; sadïp al- (~ sadïval-) to buy, to purchase. [<CT *sat-]
  • sattïn- to be for sale; to sell oneself.
  • sattïnïkčï traitor.
  • sattïr- to let sell.
  • sava bowl, vessel; urug savazï uterus. [LM saba]
  • sava- of horses to shake the head.
  • sava- to strike, to fluff up, to whisk. [LM saba-]
  • savaŋ straw.
  • savaŋ soap. [LM sabung ←Ir]
  • savaŋna- to lather.
  • savar thread (in weaving).
  • savïl big wooden bowl, vessel.
  • saygar- to disassemble, to investigate, to try to make out, to analyse; to transpose, to rearrange; to market, to sell.
  • saygarïl- to be analysed, rearranged, marketed; to settle down to married life.
  • saygarïlga analysis; rearrangement; marketing; domak saygarïlga sentence analysis.
  • saygarïn- to analyse, rearrange, market oneself.
  • saygarïš- to analyse, rearrange, market together.
  • saygarlïkčï businessman, trader.
  • saygart- to let analyse, rearrange, market.
  • saygartïn- to analyse, rearrange, market oneself.
  • saygartïr- to let analyse, rearrange, market.
  • sayïr pebbles, shingle; dried-up river-bed, covered with pebbles.
  • savïyaa morocco leather. [←Rus saf’yan]
  • say pebbles, shingle; shoal, bank; say čaš girl’s braid; say ïyaš young tree, sapling.
  • say kernel (of a cedar nut or sunflower); ak say tooruk nut with a white (unripe) kernel; kara say tooruk nut with a dark (ripe) kernel; kaldar say tooruk nut with a kernel with brown and yellow spots, (ripening).
  • saya million; cf. million. [LM saya ←LT]
  • sayak ambler; sayak aht ambler. [LM sayak]
  • sayakta- to amble.
  • sayïïrgak conceited.
  • sayïram covered with pebbles.
  • sayït noble, official. [LM said]
  • saylïk a species of bird, wagtail.
  • sayzïraŋgay extended, widely distributed, well developed.
  • sazaŋ (of plants) trmpled down; (of clothes) threadbare, shabby.
  • sazaŋnal- (of plants) to be trampled down; (of clothes) to be threadbare, shabby.
  • seek fly. [<CT *siŋek]
  • seen the thread of a cross-bow.
  • seenek yearling he-goat.
  • seeŋ of you, your; cf. sen you.
  • seeŋii yours; bo nom seeŋii be? is this book yours?; seeŋii-bile with yours; seeŋii-bile bolgay aan may it be with yours.
  • segel chin.
  • segi cf. seri awning.
  • segi- to improve, to become better, to take a turn for the better, to get well, to recover.
  • segilde fattening, being well-fed (of livestock).
  • segir- to snatch, to seize.
  • segirtilge hunting battue; cf. segit.
  • segit cf. segirtilge hunting battue.
  • segley- to heave, to sway, to wave, to flutter; to be spread out; (of hair) to become loose, to become tousled, dishevelled.
  • segleŋeyin- to heave, to sway, to wave, to flutter.
  • segleŋne- to heave, to sway, to wave, to flutter; xattan ïyaštar segleŋeynip turgan the trees were swaying in the wind.
  • segleŋnet- to let heave, sway, wave, flutter.
  • sek carrion, corpse; remains; asshole, bastard; čadïrnïŋ segi remains of a cabin; köŋgüs melegey sek tir sen aa! you are a complete lying bastard! (lit. you are absolutely a foolish corpse). [LM seg]
  • sek punctuation mark; ulug sek full stop, dot; biče sek comma; xöy sek three dots (to mark omission); büdün čartïk sek semi-colon; iyi sek colon.
  • sekpil freckle.
  • seksiirge yearling lamb with long wool.
  • seleme saber, sword. [LM seleme]
  • seleske cf. xeleske lizard.
  • selgüüste- to talk a walk, to stroll. [LM selgüče-]
  • seli- to replace, to substitute for, to exchange; turupkan ahttï selip al- to replace a tired horse.
  • semiri- to grow fat (of animals). [<CT *semiri-]
  • semis fat. [<CT *semiz]
  • sen you; seeŋ your; seŋee to you, for you; seni you; sende at you, on you; senden from you, than you; senče ~ sendive to you; seeŋ-bile with you. [<CT *sen]
  • senči bolt, latch, catch. [LM senĵi]
  • senčile- to bolt, to latch. [LM senĵile-]
  • senčilig locked with a bolt, latch, catch.
  • seŋee to you, for you; cf. sen you.
  • sep channel (branch of a river).
  • septe- to repair, to mend; idikterni septe- to repair the boots.
  • septe- to stop, to cease (of the rain).
  • seree fork. [LM serege]
  • seremči vigilance, caution. [LM seremĵi]
  • seremčilel vigilance, caution.
  • seremčileldig vigilant, cautious.
  • seremčilig vigilant, cautious.
  • sereŋgi match, matches. [←Rus serjanki]
  • serge castrated he-goat. [LM serke]
  • serge- to be awake, to bestir. [LM serge-]
  • sergek alert, awake. [LM sergeg]
  • seri awning, shed; cf. segi. [←Ir]
  • seriin cool, refreshing. [LM serigün]
  • ses eight; ses dugaar the number eight; iyunnuŋ sestiŋ xünü June 8; sestiŋ biri one eighth. [<CT *sekiz]
  • seski eighth; seski odurug eighth row.
  • setki- to think, to conceive, to symphatize with, to treat kindly.
  • setkil thought, mind, spirit, feeling. [LM sedkil]
  • setküül literary journal. [LM sedgül]
  • sezen eighty; sezengi eightieth. [<CT *sekson]
  • sezik suspicion, doubt. [LM sesig ~ seĵig]
  • sezin- (sestir) to be rather afraid, to be careful not to; to suspect.
  • sidik urine, pee, piss; teve sidii beer (lit. camel piss). [<CT *siddük]
  • sidikte- to pass urine, to urinate, to pee, to piss.
  • sigen hay; grass.
  • siilber cutting, pattern.
  • siir sinew, tendon. [<CT *siŋir]
  • sigiš- [sikčir] to have sex together, to screw, to fuck. [<CT *sikiš-]
  • siler you, you all; you (polite). [<CT *siler]
  • silgi- to shake, to tremble. [LM silge-]
  • silgin- to shake oneself. [<CT *silkin-]
  • silig clean, tidy. [<CT *silig]
  • simidaan sour cream. [←Rus smetana]
  • siŋ- to soak into, to be absorbed; to assimilate. [<CT *siŋ-]
  • siŋir- to absorb. [<CT *siŋür-]
  • siŋmir- to blow one’s nose. [<CT *simgir-]
  • siŋnik- to consider carefully, to scrutinize; to embody, to incarnate; to join, to be sympathetic to.
  • sirge nit. [<CT *sirke]
  • sirile- to shake, to tremble, to shiver.
  • sirilet- to shake, to tremble, to shiver.
  • sirt spine, back; mountain range. [<CT *sïrt ~ *sirt]
  • sivir- to scrape.
  • sivirtkiiš (~ sivirtiiš) scraper; cf. süürtüüš.
  • sïdïm leather lasso.
  • sïgï whistle, whistling, hissing (sound) (e.g. of a bullet, the wind).
  • sïgïr narrow; sïgïr karaktïg kiži person with narrow eyes; sïgïr oktug boo small calibre gun; sïgïr daŋ bažïnda very early, at the crack of dawn.
  • sïgïr- to whistle. [<CT *sï:kïr-]
  • sïgïrga oriole.
  • sïgïrtaa small wooden pot.
  • sïgït whistling style of throat singing.
  • sïïga- (of a river, water) to become shallow or low, to subside.
  • sïïk shallow.
  • sïïla- (of a wolf, storm) to howl, (of a bullet) to whistle.
  • sïïn maral deer, elk. [<CT *sïgun]
  • sïïn- (sïŋnïr) to press close, to draw closer. [<CT *sïgïn-]
  • sïïr- to swallow, to gulp. [<CT *siŋür-]
  • sïïrgak lower leg (of animals). [cf. LM sigira]
  • sïïrtïn- ?to swallow, to gulp.
  • sïïrtkïïš (fish) hook, fishing rod.
  • sïïrtkïïšta- to fish, angle.
  • sïk- to break something.
  • sïk- [sïhk-] (sïgar) to squeeze, to press, to pinch. [<CT *sïk-]
  • sïksï- to caulk; to fill, stop (holes).
  • sïksïg material for caulking or filling holes (e.g. moss, hemp, wool).
  • sïkta-: ïglap-sïkta- to vehemently cry, to weep. [<CT *sïkta-]
  • sïlda- to find a reason, cause, motive, pretext for; to pretend, to simulate, to make use of an opportunity, to use as; cf. sïldagla-. [LM silta-]
  • sïldag reason, cause, motive; oytalaar sïldag tïppa- to find no reason for rejection, refusal. [LM siltaγ]
  • sïldagla- cf. sïlda- to find a reason, to make use of an opportunity.
  • sïldan- of children to be chronically ill.
  • sïldangï illness (in children), ill; sïldangï urug sick child.
  • sïldïs star. [<CT *yïlduz]
  • sïmïraačï sorcerer, sorceress, wizard, witch.
  • sïmïran- to whisper.
  • sïn mountain range.
  • sïn- to break, to become broken. [<CT *sï:n-]
  • sïnïk broken; break, fracture; sööktüŋ sïnïï fracture of the bone. [<CT *sï:nuk]
  • sïŋ- to fit in, to be contained, accommodated; bo zalga bir muŋ kiži sïŋa beer a thousand people fit in this hall, this hall accommodates a thousand people; aaska sïŋmas söster obscene words; kayaa-daa sïŋmas kiži unaccommodating, unsociable person. [<CT *sïg-]
  • sïŋïš- (sïŋčïr) to fit in together. [<CT *sïgïš-]
  • sïŋïy bladder; sïŋïy kulaa ureter.
  • sïŋmarlaš- to crowd, to throng.
  • sïp [sïhp] handle, stem; bižek sïvï knife’s handle; baldï sïvï handle of an axe. [<CT *sap]
  • sïpta- to provide with a handle; to put into; ine sïpta- to thread a needle.
  • sïr: sïr dedir back to front; exactly opposite; sïr öske completely different.
  • sïra dead wood; pole, stake.
  • sïrbay- to shiver with cold; čïrïï sïrbay- ?to smile.
  • sïrbïk squirrel.
  • sïrga earring. [<CT *sïrka]
  • sïrï spark (in forging iron).
  • sïrïn current of air, light breeze, draught; plaintive, doleful song. [<CT *sarïn]
  • sïrïngï epizootic, epidemic disease in animals.
  • sïrïnna- to blow (of a gentle breeze).
  • sïrïy compact, compressed, close together, dense.
  • sïrta- to put under one’s head (pillow).
  • sïrtïk cushion, pillow; support, prop, rest; urug sïrtïï afterbirth, placenta.
  • sïska- to strain, filter (fluids).
  • sïstïk pillow. [<CT *yastuk]
  • sïvïr- to roll up one’s sleeves.
  • sïy- to break something; buduk sïy- to break a twig. [<CT *sï:-]
  • sïybïžïk little finger.
  • sïydooluka saddle. [←Rus sedelka]
  • sïyïk broken; interrupted.
  • sïyïŋayïn- ?to squeak.
  • sïyt-sïyt tweet-tweet (sound of whistling).
  • sliva plum. [←Rus sliva]
  • sodak the traditional attire of a (Tuvan) wrestler; cf. šuudak. [LM siγudaγ]
  • sogu- to click the tongue; to rattle one’s teeth; to crack nuts.
  • sogug [sohgug] a slap, beating.
  • sogun arrow; sogun ïškaš xönü direct as an arrow.
  • soguna onion, chives; tayga sogunazï wild onion. [LM songgina]
  • sogur blind. [LM soqor]
  • sogurar- to be blind.
  • sogurart- to make blind.
  • soguš a fight; cf. čoguš.
  • soguuškun a bit, a snif.
  • soguuškun [sohguuškun] a slap, beating.
  • sok- (sogar) to hit, to strike, to slaughter; auxiliary indicating a slight action; demir sok- to forge iron; šarï sok- to slaughter an ox; mal sogar čer slaughter-house; sogar mal slaughter-animals; sop ölür- to beat to death; bižiy sop aldïm I jotted it down; uduy sop algan he took a little nap. [<CT *sok-]
  • soksa- to stop, to cease, to discontinue, to come to an end.
  • soksat- to cause to stop, to put an end to.
  • sok-sok shoo! (exclamation to shoo off a dog).
  • sokta- to pound, to beat, to knock, to crack, to husk, to shell; of birds to peck; dus sokta- to pound salt; ežikti sokta- to knock at the door; maska-bile sokta- to beat with a hammer; taraa sokta- to husk the wheat; xöm sokta- to curry leather.
  • soktal- to be husked.
  • soktan- to beat, knock oneself.
  • soktaš- to pound, beat, knock, husk together.
  • soktat- to let or cause to pound, beat, knock, husk.
  • soktattïn- to beat, knock oneself.
  • soktattïr- to let or cause to pound, beat, knock, husk.
  • soktun- to strike or knock against; to smoke drugs, marihuana [cf. Rus udarjat’sja to addict oneself to].
  • soktur- to let beat, to have somebody beaten. [<CT *soktur-]
  • sol peace, rest.
  • sol left. [<CT *so:l]
  • solagay left; left-hander; solagay xol left hand; solagay tala left side; solagay erik left shore. [LM soloγai]
  • solaŋgï glow. [LM solongγa rainbow]
  • solaŋgï weasel. [LM solongγa]
  • soldat soldier; soldat xep soldier’s uniform. [←Rus soldat]
  • solu- to change, to replace, to shift. [LM soli-]
  • solun newspaper; interesting; solun čugaa interesting talk. [cf. LM sonin]
  • soluš- (solčur) to exchange.
  • soma rough draft, outline, sketch; illegible track, undecipherable imprint; simplified, schematic; conventional; soma čuruk sketch, outline, schematic drawing.
  • somala- to do roughly (in general outline, in a simplified manner), to make a rough draft; somalaan simplified, schematic, sketchy.
  • somna- to rough-hew, to cut coarsely.
  • sonuurga- to be interested in. [LM sonirqa-]
  • sonuurgal interest. [LM sonirqal]
  • soŋ end, rear; after; soo (< soŋu) its end; ažïldïŋ soo the end of the work; baštïŋ soo back of the head, occiput; sudnonuŋ soo the poop of a ship; poyezdiniŋ soo the rear coaches of a train; soŋ daarta afterwards, later on; soonga after; soonda after; oon soonda then, afterwards; ooŋ soonda in the end, finally; koncert soonda kino-čuruk baza körgüsken after the concert they showed a movie too; ažïl doozulgan soonda, oyunnar kežeezi bolgan after the work was finished, there were entertaining evenings; soondan from behind, from the rear, after, following; soondan kör- to look from behind; olarnïŋ soondan čorupkan men I went following them; soonče after, following; soonče kör- to follow with one’s eyes. [<CT *soŋ]
  • soŋga window; window-frame, sash; soŋga karaa window; soŋga šili window-pane. [LM čongqu(n) ←Ch]
  • soŋgaar backwards, back, north; soŋgaar körün- to look back; soŋgaar čoru- to walk north; moon soŋgaar later on, subsequently, henceforth. [<CT *soŋgaru]
  • soŋgaargï: moon soŋgaargï further, later on, subsequent, following.
  • soŋgaarla- to sit in the back row, to sit backwards (e.g. in the saddle); to be postponed.
  • soŋgaarlat- to procrastinate, to postpone.
  • soŋgu last; next; northern; soŋgu dün arctic night; Soŋgu Polyus North Pole; Soŋgu Amerika North America; soŋgu ada step-father; soŋgu iye step-mother.
  • soŋgu- to elect, to choose; onu kežigünge soŋgu- to elect him/her as a member. [LM songγu-]
  • soŋgukču elector. [LM songγuγči]
  • soŋgulda election. [LM songγulta]
  • soŋguzu: soŋguzu xün the day after tomorrow.
  • soŋna- to remain behind.
  • soŋnadïr last, later, afterwards.
  • soŋnay last, later, afterwards; soŋnaygï the last.
  • soŋnug-murnug one after the other.
  • soo- to be or become cold, frozen, to get cold. [<CT *sogï-]
  • sook cold, frost; bögün sook-tur it is cold today. [<CT *sogïk]
  • sooksumaar coldish, cool; sooksumaar xat coldish wind.
  • sool- (soglur) to dry out, to dry up; to run dry; (of a cow) to stop giving milk; xöölbek soglup kalgan the reservoir has dried up; karak sool- of the eyes to become blind; karak soglur upon my word!; karak soglur körbedim upon my word, I did not see it. [<CT *sogïl-]
  • sooldur- to make dry; to boil up.
  • soonda (< soŋunda) after; cf. soŋ end.
  • soondaa: soondaa čïlïn in two years; soonda xün in two days, on the third day.
  • soondagï last, last one.
  • soora not true, not correct, mistaken.
  • sor- to suck. [<CT *sor-]
  • sorug salt plain.
  • soruk wish, desire, inspiration. [LM ĵorig]
  • soruktug resolute, strong-willed, inspired, enthusiatic.
  • sorulga task, goal, aim. [LM ĵorilγa]
  • sorunza magnet, lodestone. [LM sorunĵa(n)]
  • soržu monk’s rank. [LM čorĵi ←LT čhos-rĵe]
  • soy- to tear off, to strip, to skin, to flay, to peel, to tatter; to take off; keš soy- to flay, to skin; ezer soy- to take of the saddle, to unsaddle. [<CT *soy-]
  • soy- to creep, to crawl (of reptiles).
  • soyaalaŋ cf. dönen four-year-old cow, bull, horse, camel or yak. [LM soyuγalang five-year-old (horse, ox); three-year-old (sheep)]
  • soyasta- to creep, to crawl (of reptiles).
  • soyastaarlar reptiles.
  • södürt- to carry, to convey, to transport, to haul, to drag; cf. *söört-. [cf. NE *södürü- <CT *södrö-]
  • södürge strap (to tie a load on the back); short lasso.
  • södürgelig having a strap (to tie a load on the back), short lasso.
  • sögedekte- to sit on one knee, stretching the other one out.
  • sögey- to kneel.
  • sögle- to speak, to tell; xop sögle- to tell gossip, to sow discord. [cf. CT *söyle-]
  • söglet- to tell, to coomunicate, to pass the word; to find out, to worm out, to elicit, to extort; to be profane, to utter insults, to defame.
  • sök- to divide into pieces. [<CT *sök-]
  • sök-sök expression used to make camels lie down.
  • söŋ treating someone to wine, regalement. [LM söng]
  • söŋne- to treat someone to wine, to present gifts. [LM söngne-]
  • söŋnet- to have treated, presented (wine, gifts).
  • söök bone; bone clan. [<CT *söŋik]
  • söök-dayak bones.
  • söök-yazï race, variety of a species.
  • sööl wart. [<CT *sögil]
  • söölgü final, ultimate, last; söölgü arïn last page.
  • söölü (its) end; söölünde eventually, finally, in the end; söölü barïp in the end, finally, afterwards.
  • sööm span (the distance between the thumb and the index finger). [LM sögüm]
  • söört- to carry, to convey, to transport, to haul, to drag; cf. södürt-.
  • söösken Spiraea altaica. [NE]
  • sös word. [<CT *söz]
  • sudur sutra (lamaist book). [LM sudur ←Skt sūtra]
  • sug water; river; suu its water; sugga to the water. [<CT *su:b]
  • suggar- to water; to irrigate. [<CT *su:bgar-]
  • suggarïlga irrigation.
  • suglaŋgï blister.
  • suglug filled with water. [<CT *su:blug]
  • sugluk bit, bridle. [<CT *subluk]
  • sugžu swimmer; water-transport worker. [<CT *su:bčï]
  • suk- (sugar) to dip into, to put in, to stick in, to stuff in. [<CT *suk-]
  • suksa- to be thirsty. [<CT *su:bsa-]
  • suksun drink, beverage.
  • sula oats.
  • sula weak, feeble. [LM sula]
  • sulara- to become weak. [LM sulara-]
  • sularat- to make weak.
  • sumu administrative division of Tuva, district. [LM sumu(n)]
  • sumun ?field irrigator.
  • sun- to stretch out (hand, foot), to extend. [<CT *sun-]
  • sura- to look for, to inquire, to request. [LM sura-]
  • surag news. [LM suraγ]
  • suraglïg famous, well-known.
  • suragžï- to become famous.
  • suras extramarital; suras urug extramarital child.
  • surga- to admonish, to exhort, to give advice, to instruct; to inspect; to agitate, to campain. [LM surγa-]
  • surgaal teaching. [LM surγal]
  • surgakčï instructor, inspector, commander. [LM surγaγči]
  • surgakčïla- to be on a mission, to go on a business trip, to make an official journey.
  • surguul student; school, institution; studies, training. [LM surγaγuli]
  • surukču student, associate. [LM suruγči]
  • suugu stove, oven.
  • suuk liquid, fluid, watery; smooth (of hair); suuk bïdaa watery soup; suuk xïrba watery glue; suuk em tincture, liquid medicin; suuk čüül fluid. [<NE *suguk]
  • suuk-xan type of blood-sausage.
  • suur village, settlement; fundament, base.
  • suurga tower, turret, spire. [LM suburγa(n) stupa]
  • suvay not pregnant; barren (of domestic animals). [LM subai]
  • suy: suy belek bride-money; wedding present; gift; reward. [LM sui]
  • suyba- to stroke.
  • süge axe. [LM süke]
  • sügen fishing basket. [<CT *süken]
  • Sümber-Uula name of a mountain (in Buddhism). [LM sümber ←Skt]
  • süme advice, recommendation.
  • süme floating rib.
  • sümele- to advise, to recommend.
  • sünezin soul, spirit. [LM sünesü(n)]
  • sür- to chase, to pursue. [<CT *sür-]
  • sür: sür küš power, might. [LM sür]
  • sürgü large wooden board for currying hides; instrument for currying or scrubbing hides for treatment.
  • sürgüle- to curry or clean hides with the help of a sürgü.
  • sürlüg formidable, terrible; sürlüg küš formidable strength.
  • sürüg herd, flock. [<CT *sürüg]
  • sürügle- ?to walk through the herds.
  • sürüš- (süržür) to chase together. [<CT *sürüš-]
  • süt milk. [<CT *sü:t]
  • Süt-Xöl name of a lake (Milk-lake).
  • süttüg milky, with milk; süttüg šay tea with milk. [<CT *sü:tlüg]
  • süür sharp; peak (pointed summit of a mountain); süür baštïg örgen stick with a sharpened end.
  • süür- to scratch, to scrape.
  • süürt- to sharpen.
  • süürtüüš scraper; cf. sivirtkiiš.
  • süzük belief, religion. [LM süsüg]