Suffix cheatsheet

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Archiphoneme Guide

Vowels

  • /A/ -> e, a
  • /I/ -> i, ü, y, u
  • /V/ -> any vowel

Consonants

  • /N/ -> n, t, d
  • /D/ -> t, d
  • /L/ -> l, n, d, t
  • /J/ or /Č/ -> ž, č
  • /G/ -> k, g
  • /K/ -> k, g, ğ
  • /B/ -> b, p, v, m
  • /Z/ -> s, z

Case

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
Genitive /-NIŋ/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tiŋ -tüŋ   -tyŋ -tuŋ   A&H 2.1.1.4
After l   -diŋ -düŋ   -dyŋ -duŋ   A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else   -niŋ -nüŋ   -nyŋ -nuŋ   A&H 2.1.1.4
Dative /-KA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ke     -ka       A&H 2.1.1.4
After voiced consonants -ge     -ga       A&H 2.1.1.4
Accusative /-NI/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -ti -tü   -ty -tu   A&H 2.1.1.4
After l   -di -dü   -dy -du   A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else   -ni -nü   -ny -nu   A&H 2.1.1.4
Locative /-DA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta       A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else -de     -da       A&H 2.1.1.4
Ablative /-DAn/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ten     -tan       A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else -den     -dan       A&H 2.1.1.4
Directive I /-Je/ After voiced phonemes             -zhe A&H 2.1.1.4
After unvoiced phonemes             -che A&H 2.1.1.4
Directive II /-DIvA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, <š</, k, č   -tive -tüve   -tyva -tuva   A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else   -dive -düve   -dyva -duva   A&H 2.1.1.4

Nouns

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
Plural /-LAr/ After a vowel or r, g, j -ler     -lar       A&H 2.1.1.1
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ner     -nar       A&H 2.1.1.1
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ter     -tar       A&H 2.1.1.1
After l -der     -dar       A&H 2.1.1.1
First Person Singular Possessive /-(I)m/ After consonants   -im -üm   -ym -um   A&H 2.1.1.5
After vowels             -m A&H 2.1.1.5
Second Person Singular Possessive /-(I)ŋ/ After consonants   -iŋ -üŋ   -yŋ -uŋ   A&H 2.1.1.5
After vowels             A&H 2.1.1.5
Third Person Singular Possessive /-(z)I/ After consonants   -i   -y -u   A&H 2.1.1.5
After vowels   -zi -zü   -zy -zu   A&H 2.1.1.5
First Person Plural Possesive /-IvIs/   -ivis -üvüs   -yvys -uvus   A&H 2.1.1.5
Second Person Plural Possesive /-IŋAr/   -ŋer     -ŋar       Krueger
    -eŋer -üŋer   -yŋar -uŋar   A&H 2.1.1.5
Third Person Plural Possessive /-(z)I/ After consonants   -i   -y -u   A&H 2.1.1.5
After vowels   -zi -zü   -zy -zu   A&H 2.1.1.5
Ordinal Numbers (infrequent) /-GI/     -ki -kü   -ky -ku   A&H 2.1.3
    -gi -gü   -gy -gu   A&H 2.1.3
Collective Numbers /-AlAA(n)/   -eleen     -alaan       A&H 2.1.3
  -elee     -alaa       Krueger
Archaic Collective Number /-AldIrzI/     -eldirzi -eldürzü   -aldyrzy -aldurzu   A&H 2.1.3

Adjectives

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
Denoting Posession of the Noun or its Qualities /-LIg/ After a vowel or r, g, j   -lig -lüg   -lyg -lug   A&H 2.1.4
After nasals n, m, ŋ   -nig -nüg   -nyg -nug   A&H 2.1.4
After l   -dig -düg   -dyg -dug   A&H 2.1.4
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tig -tüg   -tyg -tug   A&H 2.1.4
  /-KI/     -ki -kü   -ky -ku   A&H 2.1.4
    -gi -gü   -gy -gu   A&H 2.1.4
Augmentative /-zImAAr/     -zimeer -zümeer   -zymaar -zumaar   A&H 2.1.4
Augmentative /-Il(dIr)/                 A&H 2.1.4
Intensity Augmentative /-(Iŋ)kIr/     -kir -kür   -kyr -kur   A&H 2.1.4
    -iŋkir -üŋkür   -yŋkyr -uŋkur   A&H 2.1.4

Nominal Categorizers

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
  /-Ig/     -ig -üg   -yg -ug    
  /-čI/     -chi -chü   -chy -chu    
  /-KčI/     -kchi -kchü   -kchy -kchu    
    -gchi -gchü   -gchy -gchu    
  /-(I)IškIn/     -ishkin -üshkün   -yshkyn -ushkun   Krueger
    -iishkin -üüshkün   -yyshkyn -uushkun   A&H
  /-KI(I)š/     -kish, -kiish -küsh, -küüsh   -kysh, -kyysh -kush, -kuush    
    -gish, -giish -güsh, -güüsh   -gysh, -gyysh -gush, -guush    
  /-(I)m/     -im -üm   -ym -um -m  
  /-čIn/     -chim -chüm   -chym -chum    
  /-lgA/   -lge     -lga        
  /-mAl/   -mel     -mal        
    -imel -ümel   -ymal -umal   Krueger /-ImAl/
  /-ldA/ Krueger /-IldA/   -ilde -ülde   -ylda -ulda   Krueger /-IldA/
........ -lde     -lda        
  -l                  
  /-čIgAš/     -chigesh -chügesh   -chygash -chugash    
  /-čAk/   -chek     -chak        
  /-čIk/     -chik -chük   -chyk -chuk    
  /-Ak/   -ek     -ak        
  /-BAy/ ........... -bej     -baj        
........ -mej     -maj        
........ -pej     -paj        
......... -vej     -vaj        

Verbs

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
First Person Singular /-(I)m/     -im -üm   -ym -um -m  
Second Person Singular /-(I)ŋ/     -iŋ -üŋ   -yŋ -uŋ  
First Person Plural /-(I)vIs/ .......   -ivis -üvüs   -yvys -uvus    
..........   -vis -vüs   -vys -vus    
Second Person Plural /-(I)ŋAr/ ....... -ŋer     -ŋar        
.........   -iŋer -üŋer   -yŋar -uŋar    
Third Person Plural /(-LAr)/ After a vowel or r, g, j -ler     -lar        
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ner     -nar        
After l -der     -dar        
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ter     -tar        
Definite Past /-GAn/ ............ -ken     -kan        
After voiced consonants -gen     -gan        
Indefinite Past /-DI/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -ti -tü   -ty -tu    
After everything else   -di -dü   -dy -du    
Present-Future /-Vr/ After vowels             -r  
  /-Ir/     -ir -ür   -yr -ur    
  /-Ar/   -er     -ar        
Converb /-Ip/     -ip -üp   -yp -up &nsbp;  
Iterative Aspect /-KIlA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -kile -küle   -kyla -kula    
After voiced consonant stems   -gile -güle   -gyla -gula    
Perfective Aspect /-IvIt/     -ivit -üvüt   -yvyt -uvut    
Resultative (past rhetorical) Aspect /-ČIk/ After nasals, l, and unvoiced consonants   -chik -chük   -chyk -chuk    
After sonants r, g, j   -zhik -zhük   -zhyk -zhuk    
Unaccomplished Aspect /-GAlAk/ After voiced consonant stems -gelek     -galak       A&H
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -kelek     -kalak       A&H
After vowels? -eelek     -aalak       Krueger
Cessative Aspect /-BAstA-/ ........... -beste     -basta        
......... -meste     -masta        
........ -peste     -pasta        
........... -veste     -vasta        
Conditional Mood /-ZA/ .......... -se     -sa        
......... -ze     -za        
Concessive Mood -daa                  
Conciliatory (Voluntative) Mood /-GAy/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -kej     -kaj        
After voiced consonants -gej     -gaj        
Desiderative Mood /-ksA/   -kse     -ksa        
Evidential Mood /-DIr/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tir -tür   -tyr -tur    
After everything else   -dir -dür   -dyr -dur    
Negation /-BA/   -pe     -pa        
  -be     -ba        
  -ve     -va        
  -me     -ma        
Present-Future Negation /-BAs/   -bes     -bas        
  -mes     -mas        
  -pes     -pas        
  -ves     -vas        
Negative Converb /-BAyn/   -pejn     -pajn        
  -mejn     -majn        
  -bejn     -bajn        
  -vejn     -vajn        

Verbal Categorizers

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
  /-LA/ After a vowel or r, g, j -le     -la        
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ne     -na        
After l -de     -da        
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta        
  /-A/   -e     -a        
  /-IrgA/     -irge -ürge   -yrga -urga    
  /-ZIrA/     -sire -süre   -syra -sura    
    -zire -züre   -zyra -zura    
  /-Ar/   -er     -ar        
  /-rA/   -re     -ra        
  /-Gar/               -kar  
              -gar  
  /-sI/     -si -sü   -sy -su    
  /-šI/     -shi -shü   -shy -shu    
  /-čI/     -chi -chü   -chy -chu    
  /-ksA/   -kse     -ksa        
  -t                  
  /-DIrt/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tirt -türt   -tyrt -turt    
After everything else   -dirt -dürt   -dyrt -durt    
  /-GIs/     -kis -küs   -kys -kus    
    -gis -güs   -gys -gus    
Reciprocal Action /-Iš/     -ish -üsh   -ysh -ush    

Verbal Modifiers

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
Converb /-(I)p/     -ip -üp   -yp -up -p  
  /-A/   -e     -a        
  /-y/               -y  
Past Converb /-GAš/   -kesh     -kash        
  -gesh     -gash        
"Since" Converb /-GAlA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -kele     -kala        
After voiced consonants -gele     -gala        
Durative Converb /-BIšaan/     -pishaan -püshaan   -pyshaan -pushaan    
    -bishaan -büshaan   -byshaan -bushaan    
    -vishaan -vüshaan   -vyshaan -vushaan    
    -mishaan -müshaan   -myshaan -mushaan    

Clitics, Particles, etc.

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
Emphatic Marker /+LA/ After a vowel or r, g, j -le     -la        
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ne     -na        
After l -de     -da        
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta        
Equative Marker /-LA/ After a vowel or r, g, j -le     -la        
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ne     -na        
After l -de     -da        
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta        
Emphatic Focus Marker =daa                  
Instrumentive Marker =bile                  
Interrogative & Deictic Particle /-(I)l/     -il -ül   -yl -ul -l  
Assertive or Evidential or Copula /-DIr/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tir -tür   -tyr -tur    
After everything else   -dir -dür   -dyr -dur    
Interrogative Particle be