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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • ta well, I don’t know, who knows; ta čeže I don’t know how many, so many.
  • taagï tangled lump of wool. [LM daγaki]
  • taak constipation (in young animals).
  • taakpï tobacco; cf. taapkï, tapkï. [LM tamaki(n)]
  • taakpïla- to smoke.
  • taala- to enjoy. [LM taγala-]
  • taalančïg pleasant, nice.
  • taalat- to cause to enjoy.
  • taalay palate. [LM tanglai]
  • taalïŋ saddle-bags [LM daling ←Ch]
  • taan jackdaw.
  • taan really, is it possible; very, too much.
  • taapkï cf. taakpï tobacco.
  • taar large bag, sack. [CT *tagar, LM taγar]
  • taarï- (~ taar-) to clip, to cut, to shear; to file, to saw; to drive on, to urge on; to give a dressing down. [LM taγara-]
  • taarïmča convenience, comfort; taarïmča čok inconvenient, unpleasant. [LM taγaramĵi]
  • taarïmčalïg convenient, comfortable.
  • taarïš- to fit, to be suitable.
  • taarïštïr- to regulate, to accommodate, to aid, to help; to conform, to adjust, to adapt.
  • taarzïn- to be satisfied with.
  • tadïla- to laugh loudly.
  • tak with strength, with force.
  • tal (purple) willow; rod, twig; bora-tal purple willow; kara-tal bay-leaf willow. [<CT *ta:l]
  • tala side; tala tïrt- to keep to one’s side; talazï-bile with respect to, concerning. [LM tala]
  • tala- to manage to get, to obtain; to break, to crash, to smash; to pillage, to plunder, to loot. [<CT *ta:la-, LM tala-]
  • talaar bad, nasty; impossible, cannot stand. [LM talaγar]
  • talalakčï adherent.
  • talalïg having sides, -sided.
  • talïy- to go away, to recede.
  • tamčïk rest; peace; self-satisfaction; cf. damčïk.
  • tamčïktïg calm, peaceful; self-satisfied.
  • tamï abyss; nether world, hell. [<CT *tamu ←Sogdian, LM tamu]
  • tamïlïg having an abyss.
  • tamïrak cf. damïrak streamlet.
  • tana mother-of-pearl; button (e.g. of the bell); tana öök button of mother-of-pearl. [LM dana ←Ir]
  • tanak nostril; gill; tanak darbaŋnat- to blow out one’s nostrils; cf. taŋmak.
  • tanala- to decorate with mother-of-pearl.
  • tančaatčï Chinese merchant.
  • tanï- to learn to know, to recognise, to identify. [LM tani-]
  • tanïš familiar, well-known, notorious; friend, pal, acquaintance; tanïš čerler familiar places; bo xerek-bile tanïš siler be? are you familiar with this matter? meeŋ bir tanïžïm one of my acquaintances; tanïš ežim my pal.
  • tanïš- to become acquainted with, to get familiar with, to learn to know; to survey, to review; čaa ešter-bile tanïš- to meet new friends, to learn to know new friends; ažïldïŋ planï-bile tanïš- to get acquainted with the working plan; delegey baydalï-bile tanïš- to survey the world situation.
  • tanïštïr- to introduce, to make familiar.
  • tanïštïrïlga introduction.
  • tanït- to let recognise, identify.
  • tanïttïn- to be recognised, identified; tanïttïnmas unrecognisable, ?evasive; ol tanïttïnmas aparïp-tïr it seemed unrecognisable.
  • tanïžïlga introduction; acquaintance; čook tanïžïlga the act of being closely acquainted.
  • taŋ powder (in Tibetan medicin); cf. tuŋ.
  • taŋdï high mountain, high taiga (mountain forest); taŋdïmay my dear mountain forest, my lofty mountain. [LM tangnuu]
  • taŋma brand, seal. [<CT *tamga]
  • taŋmak gill. [<CT *tamgak]
  • taŋnïïl watchmen, guard. [LM tangnaγul]
  • tapkï cf. taakpï tobacco.
  • tapta- to forge; to whet; to trample down.
  • taptïg tastefull; observant; accurate; pleasant.
  • tar close, narrow. [<CT *ta:r]
  • tara- to go apart, to spread. [LM taraγa-]
  • taraa grain; millet; grass; taraa ok small shot. [LM tariya(n)]
  • taraalaŋ producing grain; taraalaŋ xovular grain fields.
  • taraalïg having grain. [LM tariyalang]
  • taraačïn farmer, peasant; agricultural. [LM tariyači(n)]
  • taraažï farmer; agricultural. [LM tariyači(n)]
  • tarak sour milk. [LM taraγ]
  • tarakan icockroach. [←Ru tarakan]
  • taramïk scattered.
  • tarat- to extend, to expand; to diffuse, to give out, to disseminate.
  • tarbagan marmot. [LM tarbaga(n)]
  • tarï- to sow, to plant. [<CT *tarï-]
  • tarïmal planted. [LM tarimal]
  • tarïmal tooruk sunflower.
  • tas bald, bare. [<CT *taz]
  • tas-arï wasp.
  • taskïl cf. daskïl mountain ridge.
  • tavak plate, dish. [LM tabaγ]
  • tavak foundation; bažïŋ tavak foundation of a house. [LM tabaγ]
  • tavaŋgay sole of the foot. [LM tavaqai]
  • tavar- to go through, to enter.
  • tavarïlga chance, occurrence; circumstance.
  • tavarïš- (tavaržïr) to meet, to occur; užurga tavïrïš- to be compelled.
  • tavï weak spot, crack, split, rupture.
  • tay- to slip, to slide. [<CT *ta:y-]
  • taybïŋ peace. [LM taibung ←Ch]
  • tayga taiga; mountain forest. [LM taiγa]
  • taygak slippery place, sliding place.
  • taygakta- to slip, to slide (of animals).
  • taygïr slippery.
  • tayïlbïr note, commentary. [LM tayilburi]
  • tayïlbïrla- to explain, to comment. [LM tayilburila-]
  • tayïlbïrlat(tïr-) to cause to explain, to have explained.
  • tayïlbïrlïg explanatory.
  • tayïs low and thin or sparse (of grass).
  • tayïs- to let slip, to let slide.
  • taylak spirit.
  • tayzï bas- to slide (with one’s legs).
  • tazar- to become bald. [<CT *tazar-]
  • te male of the wild goat, buck; cf. dege.
  • teger- to circle around.
  • tek naive, understanding nothing.
  • ten needle, thorn. [<CT *teken]
  • tendigir staggering, swaggering (when loosing one’s equilibrium).
  • tendik ?stagger-stagger (onomatopoeic for staggering, swaggering).
  • tendiŋe- to reel, to stagger, to swagger (when loosing one’s equilibrium).
  • tendiŋneeš staggering, swaggering (when loosing one’s equilibrium).
  • tendir- to reel, to stagger, to swagger (when loosing one’s equilibrium).
  • tendiš ?stagger-stagger (onomatopoeic for staggering, swaggering).
  • tenek simple-minded; simpleton; bold, cool, dashing. [LM teneg]
  • tenekten- to act stupid.
  • tep- [tehp-] to kick. [<CT *tep-]
  • tepkiiš step (of stairs), rung (of ladder); pedal.
  • teptir- to make kick.
  • terbe: terbe ög yurt (made of felt). [LM terme]
  • terek poplar. [<CT *terek]
  • terektig with poplars; terektig arïg poplar forest. [<CT *tereklig]
  • tereŋ deep, profound, depth; high, height (of grass); tereŋ xem deep river; tereŋ sigen high grass; ohttuŋ tereŋi the height of the grass. [<CT *teriŋ]
  • tereŋne- to become deep, of the water to rise; xem tereŋney bergen the river had swollen.
  • terezin made of needlegrass; terezin šlyapa straw hat.
  • terge cart. [LM terge(n)]
  • tergele- to drive a chariot. [LM tergele-]
  • tergiin the most, very. [LM terigün]
  • teve camel; bishop (in chess); teve dügü camel hair; teve ehdi camel meat. [<CT *tebe]
  • tevek shuttle, bobbin, whorl; term in knucklebone games. [LM tebeg]
  • tevene big needle. [LM tebene]
  • tey mountain top; crown of the head.
  • teyle- to pray, to worship.
  • težik fodder. [cf. LM teĵiye-]
  • tig weld; seam; joint; parting (of the hair); baš tii sutures of the skull.
  • tigiiškin distance, route, stretch.
  • tiile- to win, to vanquish, to defeat.
  • tiilelge victory.
  • tik zero, nil.
  • tik- to thrust into, to prop into; to put a kettle on the fire; to erect. [<CT *tik-]
  • tïn life; cf. dïn. [<CT *tïn]
  • tïnnïg alive.
  • tïn- to breathe; to smoke (tobacco); tïnar-tïnmas holding one’s breath. [<CT *tïn-]
  • tïnïš aspiration, respiration; tïnïš organnarï respiratory organs; tïnïš al- to take a breath, to recover one’s breath; uzun tïnïš counting rhymes for showing one’s length of breath.
  • tïnïštïg aspirated.
  • tïp- [tïhp-] (tïvar) to find. [<CT *tap-]
  • tïptïr- (tïptïrar) to cause to find.
  • tïrïkï circle; circular, round.
  • tïrt- [tïhrt-] to tear, to pull; üze tïrt- to tear to shreads; ora tïrt- to rip to pieces; taakpï tïrt- to smoke. [<CT *tart-]
  • tïrtïg rope for tying up firewood (in order to carry it on the back). [<CT *tartïg]
  • tïrtïl- to be torn, pulled. [<CT *tartïl-]
  • tïrtkan force-meat, sausage-meat; rennet bag (dish); tïrtkan eht force-meat, sausage-meat.
  • tïrtkïïš crook, hook.
  • tïrtpa hook, boat-hook; gaff. [<CT *tartma]
  • tïva [tïhva ~ dïhva] Tuva(n); tïva kiži Tuva person; tïva dïl Tuva language.
  • tïvala- to speak or know Tuvan; tïvalap bilir siler be? do you know (speak) Tuvan?; mïnda tïvalap čugaalaptaar kiži bar be? is there a person here who speaks Tuvan?; bo söstü tïvalap bižip beriŋerem please write this word in Tuvan; tïvala! speak Tuvan!; tïvalaalïŋar! let’s speak Tuvan!
  • tïvïl- (tïptïr) to come into being, to arise; to be formed; to be found; tïptïp kel- to appear, to come out. [<CT *tapïl-]
  • tïvïngïr understanding.
  • tïvïš- to help find. [<CT *tapïš-]
  • tïvïzïk riddle.
  • toda clear(ly), legible. [LM todo]
  • todara- to be arranged, decided, determined. [LM todora-]
  • todug full, satiated.
  • todug-dogaa prosperous, in easy circumstances, wealthy.
  • togana smokehole of a yurt, skylight. [LM toγona]
  • togdu lamb. [<CT *toklï]
  • togduk bustard. [LM toγuduγ]
  • togla- to fall into pieces, to crumble, to become worn out.
  • tok kïl- to beat, to strike.
  • tokkula- of a knocking sound to be audible, to tap, to patter. [<CT *tokïla-]
  • tokkuŋayïn- cf. tokkula- to tap, to patter.
  • tokpak block of wood.
  • tokpak docktailed, tailless, short, chopped off (of a tail). [cf. CT *tok]
  • tol buckle, clasp.
  • tomaannïg humble, meek, submissive.
  • tomuyla- to name as, to appoint. [LM tomila-]
  • ton dress, garment, fur coat, jacket. [<CT *to:n]
  • tona- to rob. [<CT *tona-]
  • tonnan- to get dressed, to put on (clothing).
  • toŋ extremely, very. [LM tong]
  • tool story; ulustuŋ tooldarï folk tales. [LM tuuli]
  • toolay hare, rabbit. [LM taulai]
  • toolču storyteller. [LM tuuliči]
  • toolda- to tell.
  • toorgu musk deer.
  • tooruk cedar cone, cedar seed.
  • tooruktug rich in cedar cones, seeds, nuts.
  • toos cf. aldïn-doos peacock. [LM toγos]
  • tooskara cf. dooskara beetle, bug; dung beetle.
  • toožu narrative, tale, story.
  • toožu- to narrate.
  • toožula- to narrate.
  • toožulal narration, narrative.
  • toožulat- to let narrate.
  • torga woodpecker.
  • torgaal penalty. [LM torγaγuli]
  • torgu silk; torgu ton silken garment. [<CT *torku]
  • torlaa partridge.
  • tos nine; tosku ninth. [<CT *tokuz]
  • tos birch bark. [<CT *to:z]
  • tos-karak libation spoon.
  • tot- (todar) to eat one’s fill, to be satiated. [CT *tod-]
  • tottur- (totturar) to let eat one’s fill; xïrïn tottur- to eat one’s belly full. [CT *toddur-]
  • toy cf. doy clay.
  • toy-buluŋ sorrel (Rumex, Polygonaceae); rhubarb (Rheum, Polygonaceae).
  • toyaančï tramp.
  • tozan ninety. [<CT *tokson]
  • toožu story, tale.
  • tödü all, each.
  • tögerik round, circular. [LM tögerig]
  • tögül- (töktür) to spill, to pour out. [<CT *tökül-]
  • tök- [töhk-] to pour out. [<CT *tök-]
  • töl children, young, offspring. [<CT *tö:l]
  • töle- to pay. [LM tölö-]
  • tölee representative, spokesman; töleede to the extend that, in as much as. [LM tölüge(n)]
  • töleele- to represent. [LM tölügele-]
  • töleelekči representative. [LM tölügelegči]
  • töleg pay, fee.
  • tölekči payer.
  • tölevilel project.[LM tölüblel]
  • tölevir payment.
  • tölge fate, lot, destiny. [LM tölge]
  • tön- to end, to come to an end, to conclude, to finish.
  • tönčü end, conclusion.
  • töögü history.
  • töögülüg historic.
  • tööre- to be mistaken, to get lost, to be confused, embarrased, to grow foolish. [LM tögeri-]
  • töp center, central. [LM töb]
  • töre nose plug of an animal.
  • törel people, tribe, clan; relative(s); meeŋ törelim my relatives. [LM töröl]
  • törelzirek loving one’s kinsmen.
  • törü- to bear, to give birth; töreen native, relative. [LM törö-]
  • törümel birth, born.
  • törüttün- to be born.
  • töš chest. [<CT *tö:š]
  • töš tree trunk, log of wood.
  • töt- to eat, to digest.
  • tötčele- to waste.
  • tövüt Tibetan. [LM töbed]
  • töžek small tree trunk.
  • tuda [tuhda] grip.
  • tudug building. [<CT *tutug]
  • tudugžu builder.
  • tudum handful, bunch. [<CT *tutum]
  • tudum all, whole; xün tudum all day; cf. dudum. [LM tutum]
  • tudus- (tutsur) to let hold, to let seize, grasp; to hand over, to deliver; to drive on, to urge on; to quickly set out, to depart; šaŋnal tudus- to hand out a reward; čaa tudus- to strongly urge on (e.g. with the whip); če, tutsuptaalï come on, let’s depart. [<CT *tutuz-]
  • tuduš (~ tuduškak) crowded, close together, compact.
  • tuduš- (tutčur) to hold each other. [<CT *tutuš-]
  • tuduštur- to join, to unite something.
  • tuk flag, banner. [<CT *tuk, LM tuγ]
  • tul- (tular) to reach up to; dumčukka tul- to be at dead end. [LM tul-]
  • tulaa swamp, bog.
  • tulčuuškun war, battle.
  • tuluš- (tulčur) to fight.
  • tuman smoke. [<CT *tuman]
  • tumannïg smokey.
  • tuŋ conch, large shell. (LM dung ←LT duń)
  • tuŋ dose (of a medicine); cf. taŋ. [LM tung]
  • tur- to be, to be situated; to stand, to stand still; to stand up, to get up; -(I)p tur- progressive; turgaš introduction of direct speech; maŋaa tur stay here!; düün men školaga turgan men I was in school yesterday; daarta ertežik turar men I get up early in the morning; maŋaa kolxoz tövü turar here is the centre of the kolxoz; oluttan tur- to get up from one’s place; xar čaap tur it is snowing; oon tura since then. [<CT *tur-]
  • tur- to pull out, to extract; diš tur- to pull out a tooth; dazïlïndan tur- to pull from its root, to uproot, to grub up; tura-tïrt- to pull out, to extract.
  • tura wish, will; disposition; self-conceit.
  • turala- to desire, to wish for.
  • turaskaal monument, memorial.
  • turaskaat- to dedicate to.
  • turgus- to erect, to establish.
  • turgustun- to consist of.
  • turguzug construction; regime; technique.
  • turguzukču builder.
  • turlag abode, residence; stand, stop; site; shelter, refuge.
  • turul- (turlur) to be unsteady, shaky, rickety (e.g. teeth); to come off, to tear off, to take off, to fly off.
  • turum standing. [<CT *turum]
  • turumču- to settle down; to stay.
  • turuš situation, position. [<CT *turuš]
  • turuš- to stand for, to take a stand. [<CT *turuš-]
  • tus apart, isolated, separated; special. [LM tus]
  • tus-tuzunda analogue to, in accordance with.
  • tuskay special. [LM tusqai]
  • tuht (~ tut) freezing over of rivers.
  • tut- [tuht-] (tudar) to hold, to seize; to build, to construct; tudup či- to overcome, to vanquish, to become overgrown. [<CT *tut-]
  • tuttun- to grasp; to be built.
  • tuttungur construction ability.
  • tuttur- to get caught, to be seized. [<CT *tuttur-]
  • tuuybu brick.
  • tuyulduŋ šïn the absolute truth.
  • tükčü- to bolt, bar.
  • tükčüg bolt, bar.
  • tüle- to shed hair, to shed the coat, to moult, to shed feathers, to slough. [<CT *tüle-]
  • tümen ten thousand; host, multitude; numerous, innumerable, countless. [<CT *tümen ←Tocharian]
  • tüŋ total, sum. [LM düng]
  • tüŋne- to sum up; to generalize. [LM düngne-]
  • tüŋnel result; ooŋ tüŋnelinde as a result of this.
  • tür temporary. [LM tür]
  • türe- to go begging, to become destitute; to suffer.
  • türeg poverty.
  • türemik beggar, invalid.
  • türeŋgi beggarly, destitute, poverty-stricken.
  • türlüg terrible, formidable; imposing.
  • türü (~ tür) outward appearance; facial expression. [LM düri]
  • tüvek difficulty, hardship.